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50 Cards in this Set

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Anxiety disorders are marked by
excessive fear (and avoidance), often in response to specific objects or situations and in the absence of true danger, and they are extremely common in the general population.
Anxiety disorders are associated with impaired workplace performance and hefty economic costs, as well as
an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
What is observed when people have severe anxiety?
Atrophy of hippocampus occurs
The most common auroa is fear, by
electrical abnormal stimulus by the amygdala.
Damage to the amygdala leads to loss of fear, and people Becom
more trusting
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome is damage or resection of
bilateral medial temporal lobes - amygdala
What are some conditions that can lead to Kluver-Bucy Syndrome?
Herpes simplex encephalitis, Traumatic Brain Injury, Temporal Lobectomy, Metachromatic leukodystrophy, Adrenoleukodystrophy, Frontal Temporal Lobe Dementia
what are the symptoms associated witj KBS?
docility (diminished aggression and fear response), hyperphagia, hyperorality, hypersexuality, visual agnosia (inability to recognize familiar objects or people)
Whats the differences between Kluver-Bucy Syndrome patients as opposed to alzheimers patients
They become uninhibited as opposed to Alzheimer's. They become hypersexual etc. Alzheimer's social skill grow down
circuitry that allows either quick and dirty or slow and accurare response upon stimulus
-Emotional status->thalamus->amygdala (dirty and quick)
-Emotional status->thalamus->sensory cortex->amygdala (slow and accurate)
When anxiety versus performance traits have been compared, it has been shown that
Some optimal form of anxiety is needed for better performance
Symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders are thought to result in part from disruption in the balance of
activity in the emotional centers of the brain rather than in the higher cognitive centers.
The prefrontal frontal cortex (PFC) is responsible for
executive functions such as planning, decision making, predicting consequences for potential behaviors, and understanding and moderating social behavior.
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) codes
information, controls impulses, and regulates mood.
The ventromedial PFC is involved in
information, controls impulses, and regulates mood.
regulation of impulses, emotions, and behavior via inhibitory top-down control of emotional-processing structures is via
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
The ventromedial PFC
In PTSD what happens?
loss top down control with ventromedial Pre Frontal Cortex to amygdala
In order for PSTD to develop, two factors are neccesary
atrophy as well as stressful situations. Both are needed. the small hippocampus phones to stress development. . Similarlydepression shows the same findings
Hippocampus is involved in
explicit memory acquisition
What type of receptor Nts abnormalities have been associated with GABA anxiety disorders
GABA receptor abnormalities(Major inhibitory neurotransmitter)
What are some factors that lead to abnormalities of GABA?
Ethanol, barbituarates, benzodiazepines
The autonomic effects of anxiety are produced by
NE which stimulates release of CRH and projects to amygdala.
Caffeine increases firing of NE from locus cerelous
Antidepresants given for depression have been shown to allow
neurogenesis in dentate gyrus via the BDNF
Whats the effect of antidepressants in axiety?
decreased BDNF in Nucleus accumbes. so it doesnt confer the same relief as in depression
Stress releases cortisol that suppress
BDNGF and volume of hippocampus. Causes decrease in dendrtic branching and spines
. Stress is directly correlated with branching in the amygdala
more emotional)
Obessive Compulsive Disorder can be presented in
Tourette, Syndeham's chorea and Parkinson disease
OCD criteria obsessions
- Intrusive, unwanted thoughts, impulses, images, and sensations that cause marked anxiety
-Not simply excessive worries about real life problems
- attempts to ignore,suppress,or neutralize
- recognized as product of one'smind
characteristic of thougths in people with ocd
INTRUSIVE
– Recurrent
– Inappropriate
– Excessive/unreasonable – Induce anxiety
– Resisted
Pediatric autoimmune iinflammorybsomehtong syndrome, develops oc because
of strep damage to basal ganglia
Studies have shown that OCD patients tend to have lower levels of
this neurotransmitter (NT). Evidence which supports this hypothesis is the fact that drugs which increase serotonin output reduce symptoms of OCD. Because serotonin is essential for nerve cell communication
mental compulsions of people with OCD
-Special words, images, numbers recreated mentally to neutralize anxiety
-special prayers repeated in a set manner
-Mental counting
-mental list making
-Mental reviewing
vii. Dopamine is directly correlated with OCD behavior observed in
tourrettes. Give DA antagonist (antiSZ) to treat
OCD - what corticostriatal pathways are involved
Dorsolateral cortex, anterior cingulated gyrus, increased activity in caudate, OFC and cingulated
Orbitofrontal cortex is associated with
Personality, emotion, response inhibition, and social behavior
Dorsolateral cortex
Executivefunctioning,planning,attention,working
memory
Anterior cingulate cortex
Initiative, motivation
OCD seems to be involved in dysfunction of cortical/basal ganglia loop , which can be caused by
Huntington’s, Tourette’s, maybe Parkinson’s, Sydenham’s
chorea also exhibit OCD
Reduced left orbitofrontal cortex in OCD patients correlates with
severity of symptoms
OCD symptoms provocation exarcerbate hyperactivity of
Orbitofrontal cortex
Cingulate cortex
Caudate nucleus
Thalamus
Three examples of full-blown OCD occurring apparently acutely de novo following putative causal events include:
-OCD related to an infection such as that associated with streptococcal infections (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections [PANDAS] syndrome;
-Trauma-related OCD following acute brain injuries
-OCD occurrence during treatment of schizophrenia with atypical
neuroleptic agents
Pharmacological treatments for OCD
Clomipramine
Fluoxetine (Prozac)
Paroxetine (Paxil)
Serotonin Antagonists exacerbate symptoms
Serotonin's job
modulate prefrontal cortex, striatum and thalamus
Serotonin dysfunction was proven because
Increased 5-HT2A receptors in caudate which are normalized after SSRI treatment
Acute trypotophan depletion can increase
anxiety and compulsive urges and rituals
Dopamine agonists can exacerbate
OCD symptoms
up to 90% of
individuals with Tourette’s have
OCD)
ocd treatments
-SSRIs
-Adjunctive antipsychotics (dopamine antagonists)
-Behavior therapy
-Psychosurgery
Cingulotomy
Destroy connections between the frontal lobe and basal ganglia/limbic structures...almost 50%no improvement
Deep brain stimulation
The surgeon inserts wires through the skull and into capsule.
2. Wires are permanent and attached to battery pack implanted in chest.
3. Battery produces adjustable freq that has same effect as the other Surgeries.
Used in Parkinson's patients