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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
elements in a statement which compose information essential to full expression of a verb form.
aspectual nuance
the tense form when it is not default and is therfore "marked," communicates a nuance of verbal aspect.
default form
the tense form endorsed by the conventions inluencing tense form usage. This concept is nearly synomnous with the term, the " unmarked" form as long as one understands that "markedness" of forms varies in different linguistic situation and that there may even be varying degrees of markedness.
any state, relationship, or action to which a verb refers. Events can be broadly sub-divided into atelic and telic events.
the basal from of a word considered without reference to its various morphological transformations.
lexical determination
when a verb is missing particular tense forms, its realizations in the only form possible are said to be lexically determinde because no aorist or perfect forms exist in the NT for the infinitive of eimi (even though genesthai might be appropriated as this verb's virtual aorist.
lexical factor
the inherent character of the event referenced by a verb form. The older Aktionsart approximated this idea, but it has been defined so differently by different scholars that Baugh no longer uses it.
the expression o fthe verb form with all its attendant parts in a context. For instance, heurekenai is the realization of heuriskw.
any utterance, either oral or written, which forms a unit of discourse bearing upon the tense form choice of a verb form.
tense form
the form fo any verb which communicates tense or aspect (present, aorist, etc).
atelic verbs
1. stative (states and relationships). 2. Activity (actions with no inherent termination).
telic verbs
1. performance (bounded actions with percieved duration). 2. Punctual (bounded actions with little percievable duration).
atelic, stative
one way to distinguish stative verb is to ask whether any exertion of will is involved.
atelic, actiivity.
acitivities are view as having no set limit for their completion. e.g. I am walking, eating, talking, preaching, doing, reading, etc.
telic, performance
a performance is an action that is limited (bounded) in that includes its climax, conclusion, or termination.
telic, punctual
punctuals are done in the moment without taking any percieved significant time duration for the action. e.g. I buy, I throw, I fall, or I find.
atelic vs telic
atelic are often expressed in the present. Telic are often expressed in the aorist.
When talking about infinitives, what 5 factors should one consider?
1. lexical determination. 2. the inherently atelic/telic character of the event. 3. the demand of some constructions for one tense form or the other. 4. the communication of relative time. 5. the author is communicating an aspectual nuance. A nuance should only be considered after all of the first 4 are considered. if the tense form is default, then no aspectual nuance can be determined.
What is the"demands of construction"?
The rigors of some constructions for tense form choice is a matter of the conventions of the Greek lanuage itself. It was proper Greek.
What is relative time (tense)?
Subjunctive lexical determination
Some verbs are lexically determined, such as eimi and oida (no nuance should be forced).
Subjuncitve atelic
prefer present subjunctive forms.
Subjunctive telic
prefer aorist subjuncitive forms.
Subjunctive author's descriptive choice
If the construction allows for variation for which tense form of the subj. to employ then the subj. is usually based on the atelic/telic norms. If the pattern is not followed, there is probably some aspectual nuance.
What are the main principles affecting imperitival tense choice?
1. lexical determination (ide "look" eblepon "look"). 2. atelic/telic factor. 3. general situation factor. Only after these factors are considered can there be any discussion of aspectual nuance.
What are the general situation factors of the imperitival tense?
1. expectations: present tense and it forbids a general behavior, a characteristic state, or a repeated action. 2. prayers; normally aorist.
Substantive/Attributive Participle Present Tense form choice.
1. general (characteristic state or habitual action). 2. progressive. 3. impending (futuristic). The future ptc was phasing out by NT times. John 1:33. 4. conative: connotes that the event was only attempted. Context determines it.
Substantive/Attributive Ptc Aorist Tense form choice.
1. relative past time event : refer to event in the past with respect ot the main action. 2. inceptive: with stative verbs, express inception into state.
Substantive/Attributive Ptc Perfect Tense form choice
1. resulting state: the English present tense is the best choice. 2. Perfective: if the main verb is past tense, a English pluperfect may be used in English translation. 3. complex:
Averbial Ptc Tense form Use
the present tense communicates contemporaiety with main event. 2. the aorist communicates the event is prior to the main verb. 3. perfect communicates that the event has been completed prior to the main event.