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61 Cards in this Set

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What is the decision action cycle?
Direction, Consideration, Decision and Execution
BP Step 1 - Receive Warning Order
To prepare for an operation, units must receive notice of impending tasks at the earliest practicable time. This notice is usually given in the form of a Warning Order, which initiates battle procedure. A timely, complete order permits the maximum use of the time available for operational and administrative preparations.
BP Step 2 - Conduct a Quick Map Study and Time Estimate
A quick map study will orient you to the tactical situation, your current location, and the location, distance and routes that you must consider for travel to your commander’s orders.
Given the timings issued in the Warning Order, you must consider when to depart to receive your commander’s orders, when you will issue your own orders, and how much time is available for your subordinates to prepare. If possible, preliminary recces or troop movements may be conducted as concurrent activity.
Step 3 - Receipt of Orders
You must always arrive a minimum of 15 minutes early for an Orders Group in order to determine seating, mark your map, and conduct liaison. You should be prepared to brief your commander on the state of your forces in terms of personnel / vehicle strengths, capabilities, and any shortages that may affect his plan
Step 4 - Conduct Mission Analysis
Immediately following the receipt of orders, you should complete your mission analysis while in the commander’s location. This will allow you to confirm any points with the commander before you depart, and ensures that you have fully understood your tasks
Step 5 - Issue Initial Warning Order
A Warning Order can be issued at any time during this process when there is sufficient information to merit doing so. As a minimum, a Warning Order must include the scope of the operation and probable nature of the task, the location and time for the presentation or distribution of your orders, and the earliest possible departure time; this can be expressed as a degree of notice to move or as a “no move before” time. Ideally, the enemy situation and any special operational or administrative preparations are also identified.
your tasks.
Step 6 - Make a Detailed Time Estimate
Work backwards from H-Hr to the Time NOW, listing all tasks and time required to complete. Allocate a minimum of two-thirds of the time available to your subordinates for their battle procedure. Be prepared to abbreviate your own battle procedure time if necessary.
Step 7 - Conduct a Map Study and Prepare an Outline Plan
Using the map and the details provided in orders, conduct a detailed map study as the first step in deciding how to accomplish your task. A thorough examination of the map will generate possible courses of action for you to consider, following the identification of your vital ground, points of key terrain, and possible approaches for both you and the enemy.
Step 8 - Prepare a Reconnaissance Plan
In order to ensure that you maximize the benefits of your time during a ground recce, a recce plan must be created. This will ensure that all points that need to be examined are visited, and that the time spent in each location is limited to the time allocated. This will prevent a recce from dragging on and taking up more time than you had originally intended.
Step 9 - Conduct Reconnaissance
Conduct the recce IAW your recce plan, and maintain your timings. Use this recce to confirm your outline plan or make adjustments to it. Try to view the area from the enemy’s side as much as possible.
Step 10 - Do Remainder of Estimate
Once you have collected all of the information you needed on the ground recce, you can finalize your estimate and determine your course of action. Details on the estimate process will be explained later in this module
Step 11 - Issue a Supplementary Warning Order
If your recce or estimate identifies important issues that can be addressed early, or if there are other details that can be passed along, supplementary warning orders can be issued at any time when there is merit in doing so
Step 12 - Prepare and Issue Orders
Orders may be presented in a variety of formats, but will most likely be given verbally at the beginning of an operation, with written confirmatory notes. Once operations are in progress radio orders, overlay orders, or fragmentary orders will be the most prevalent methods of issuing direction.
Step 13 - Coordinate Activities and Requirements of Subordinates
This is a key function of a commander in order to ensure that your subordinates’ plans and the supporting details are tied together and that any required adjustments are made.
Step 14 - Supervise Deployment
A commander must ensure that the correct forces are positioned in the right place at the right time, in the proper grouping, with all of the necessary resources required to complete the mission.
Step 15 - Execute the Mission
Once your forces have commenced operations, you are responsible to complete your mission in keeping with your commander’s intent and the desired endstate.
The Steps of Mission Analysis – There are four steps in this process:
- Determining your superiors’ intent
- Identifying tasks
- Identifying constraints
- Verifying the current situation
The Process of Mission Analysis .
- Mission analysis is a continuous process. It is conducted both during deliberate planning before an operation, and once an operation is underway. The steps of the process remain the same, however the difference is in the emphasis of each step and the time available to complete the process
The Aim of Mission Analysis
- Mission Analysis ensures a commander’s understanding of what must be accomplished, and why, to the extent that when necessary, and without being ordered, he may respond to a situation in the way in which his superior commander would intend.
Mission Analysis
“This is a logical process for extracting and deducing from a superior’s orders the tasks necessary to fulfill a mission. It places in context what effect is to be achieved in the overall design for operations and results in the commander’s own mission statement. The commander establishes what constraints apply, and determines, as the operation progresses whether further decisions are required.
The first step in the Mission Analysis process is determining your superiors’ intent.
A Commander must determine how his operation will support his Comd’s mission. To do this he must understand the intent two levels up, and his own superior’s role in this intent. He must have a complete understanding of the concept of operations of his immediate Comd. This includes his Comd’s intent, scheme of manoeuvre, desired end state, and designation of the main effort. This information is normally articulated in the Friendly Forces sub-paragraph and the Concept of Ops paragraph.
Step 1 – Determining Intent (continued)
“What are the intentions of my commanders and what is my role in the overall plan? How must my actions directly support their plans?” You would find the answers to that question by looking in detail at your commander’s concept of ops, groupings and tasks given to you and your fellow subordinate commanders.
Step 2 – Identifying Tasks
From within the execution paragraph, you must derive your assigned and implied tasks.
The implied tasks are a little more elusive.
Some implied tasks fall out of the commander’s concept. For example, he intends to shape the enemy into KZ EAGLE. Does this imply adopting an area defence? What falls out of that statement?
Once all of these tasks have been listed, the essential tasks (tasks that must be completed in order to achieve the overall mission) are identified;
this will lead to the selection of a mission verb
Step 3 – Identifying Constraints
Constraints can be summarized as limitations on your freedom of action that have been imposed by your chain of command.
Constraints are
Many constraints will be given to you in your orders. They range from timings you must meet to the control measures placed upon you that limit your freedom of movement. Further limiting factors, including political restrictions, may also prohibit the commander from undertaking specific actions. For example, Rules of Engagement are created at the national / strategic level, yet will limit actions at all levels.
Step 4 – Verifying the Current Situation
Whenever a Mission Analysis is conducted, you must assess whether the situation has changed since your commander made his plan and issued his orders. If it has, there may be impacts upon your mission.
Has the Mission Changed - the four questions
1. No - Carry on
2. yes - Plan Still Viable
3. yes - plan still valid - needs amendment
4. yes - need a new plan - consult with my superior
Once you have completed a Mission Analysis, you must articulate your mission so that your subordinates understand what must be accomplished. This is done by a
Mission Statement.
A statement of what must be accomplished is formed by
the essential task identified earlier, taken in conjunction with any constraints that have been imposed.
The second part of the Mission Statement explains why a task must be accomplished; that is, how you are contributing to your higher commanders’ mission. For example,

To delay the lead BG of the 1st Bde 1 PGD for six hours between SQUASH TOP and SHARP SWORD in order to set the conditions for the destruction of 1 PGD in KZ EAGLE
Recce plan threat
the threat, as this influences where, when and how the reconnaissance is conducted;
Recce plan Time
time available to complete the reconnaissance;
Recce plan how to get there
means of transportation;
Recce plan points
points to be checked and decisions to be made during the reconnaissance;
Recce plan locations
locations to be visited;
Recce plan locations
locations to be visited;
Recce plan routes
routes to be taken into, out of, and within the area of responsibility; and
Recce plan security
security requirements, including the provision of a protective element.
Recce plan Matrix Method
This method uses a table in conjunction with your map to detail your recce. In essence, it forms a route card for the recce, with a precise accounting of where you are going, what information you need to determine, time for recce, time for travel, routes, etc. The table below is one example of what this matrix could look like.
Recce plan Map Method
This method uses graphics and words placed directly on your map, using the same type of information mentioned in the matrix, but representing it through drawings and text.
The preparation of an estimate involves the following major steps:
A study of the situation (mission analysis) to decide on the aim to be attained and to define imposed limitations.

Identification and consideration of the relevant factors and drawing deductions from these.

Consideration of possible courses of action including advantages and disadvantages of each.

Selection of the best course of action.

Translation of the best course of action into a plan
three distinct forms of the Estimate:
the Combat Estimate, the Formal Estimate, and the Collective Estimate.
Combat Estimate trigger
1. Task or Mission Received.
2. Change in situation.
3. Commander Direction.
4. Contingency Planning.
4 factors of an estimate are
courses open
The Combat Estimate Aim
It is crucial that the aim (derived from your Mission Analysis and Mission Statement, and including any limitations) is completely clear and correct.
The Combat Estimate Factors
A factor is defined as a circumstance, fact, or influence contributing to a result. In an estimate, it is an element of a situation which will influence the execution of the operation.
Combat Estimate - more factors
The factors that are normally considered are: enemy, ground, friendly forces, meteorology, surprise and security, time and space and assessment of tasks. Other factors can be included for consideration when the situation warrants.
Factors - Enemy

As you conduct the Combat Estimate you will need to consider
the enemy you will be facing and its capabilities to destroy or stop your forces. You need to identify these capabilities and proportion your forces or allocate resources as necessary to effectively eliminate these threats. As this course deals with Combat Team tactics in the Forward Security Zone and not a Combat Team in the Main Defensive Area, the enemy forces likely to be encountered are as follows:
terrain analysis should consider:
-Vital Ground/KeyTerrain
-Enemy Objectives
Friendly Forces
Again, at the Combat Team level you need to be intimately aware of your organization’s weapons platforms and their capabilities, the strength, mobility and manoeuvrability of your forces, and the sustainment requirements of those forces, and how it all combines to influence your plan.
Factors - Meteorology
Rain, snow, day, night, time of moonrise and moonset, all of these things mean something to your plan.
Factors - Surprise and Security
What can you do to deceive the enemy? Within a Combat Team’s mission, you may determine means to actively deceive the enemy that you will be facing. This can be done with feints of manoeuvre with your forces, by siting alternate and dummy positions, or by using hit-and-run style tactics. In the bigger picture, your Combat Team might play a role in higher formation's deception plans.
Security Factors
In terns of security, what can you do to protect your plans and your forces from the enemy? What are your key vulnerabilities and how could the enemy exploit them? How can you then defend against that? How can you deny the enemy from knowing what you are about to do?
Time and Space
At the Combat Team level you will focus on two things: time available and time required. While doing your estimate you must determine how much time you have available to complete the various tasks and how you can best take advantage of that time.
Other Factors - Assessment of Tasks
You should not be developing new tasks at this point in the estimate; this should be a consolidation of all of the tasks that you have previously identified as necessary during the estimate process. It is at this point that you conclude the nature and type of force needed to achieve the mission.
Courses Open - Own Courses of Action (COA)
Based on the deductions, one or more feasible courses of action will be evident. A combination of courses is also possible. Courses are stated in the infinitive and identify the major forces or resources involved.
Consider the enemy COA’s first, as this will help you to develop your COA’s to counter the threat; note that you must develop at least three every courses of actions.
Courses Open - Enemy COAs
Each course open to the enemy is also analyzed to determine the likelihood of it being adopted and the effect that its use might have on the attainment of the aim. A judgment must then be made as to both the likelihood of a particular enemy course of action and its danger to friendly forces.
Consideration of Courses of Action

Look at the possible ways you could achieve your mission. You will need to develop at least three COA’s that counter the threats posed by the enemy courses
As a minimum, the plan portion of an estimate must include:
- The Mission.

- The Execution, including Concept of Ops and Groupings and Tasks.

- Key Coordinating Instructions.

- Key Service Support and Command and Signal points.