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80 Cards in this Set

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a clot that moves from one part of the body to another?
embolus
this is just producing movement. with or without weights? benefits are felt throughout the whole body?
isotonic
this is when you increase muscle tension without changing the length of the muscle or moving the joint?
isometric(just flexing abs)
valsalva maneuver is almost unavoidable in this type of exercise?
isometric exercise
this is a combination of both isometric and isotonic exercises?
isokinetic(weightlifters)
this is an activity in which the amount of oxygen taken into the body is greater than or = to the amount required by the body?
aerobic
an activity in which the amount of oxygen taken into the body is insufficient to meet the bodys needs?
anaerobic
lack of oxygen to the cells? increased pulse, restlessness and forgetfulness are early signs?
hypoxia
this is a late sign of hypoxia and bluish color of skin/ mucus membranes?
cyanosis
what keeps alveoli open?
surfactant
this is the collapse of the alveoli of the lungs due to reduced surfactant?
atelectasis
what are defining characteristics of atelectasis?
fever, increased pulse/respirations,dyspnea, cyanosis,adventitious, breath sounds.
this is an infection of the lungs tissue results from poor circulation or stagnation of secretions?
hypostatic pneumonia
characterized by increased arterial carbon dioxide, excess carbonic acid, and increased plasma hydrogen ion concentration?
respiratory acidosis
sever hypercapnia with symptoms of confusion, tremors, convulsions and possible coma if blood levels are increased to 70mmhg or higher?
carbon dioxide narcosis
heart pain?
heart pain
this prevents pooling of blood in the legs?
antiembolic hose(ted hose)
what are the ranges of orthostatic hypotension? how much should s/d drop?
20 or more systolic and 10 or more diastolic.
this is the ability to break down a clot?
fibrinolytic properties
what 3 things must be present for a thrombus to occur?
-stasis of venous flow
-hypercoagulability of blood
-damage to the endothelium(inner lining of vein)
this is the slowing of blood: more common in the elderly, pregnant women, immobilized clients?
stasis of venous flow
this occurs in many hematological disorders, dehydration or malnutrition?
hypercoagulability of blood
this is caused by the presence of an IV catheter in the same area for longer than 48 hours, fracture that causes damage to blood vessel, diabetes, trauma or external pressure?
damage to endothelium(inner lining of vein)
damaged endothelium has decreased --------------?
fibrinolytic properties(breaking down of clot)
what 3 things must be present for a thrombus to occur?
-stasis of venous flow
-hypercoagulability of blood
-damage to the endothelium(inner lining of vein)
this is the slowing of blood: more common in the elderly, pregnant women, immobilized clients?
stasis of venous flow
this occurs in many hematological disorders, dehydration or malnutrition?
hypercoagulability of blood
this is caused by the presence of an IV catheter in the same area for longer than 48 hours, fracture that causes damage to blood vessel, diabetes, trauma or external pressure?
damage to endothelium(inner lining of vein)
damaged endothelium has decreased --------------?
fibrinolytic properties(breaking down of clot)
what 3 things must be present for a thrombus to occur?
-stasis of venous flow
-hypercoagulability of blood
-damage to the endothelium(inner lining of vein)
this is the slowing of blood: more common in the elderly, pregnant women, immobilized clients?
stasis of venous flow
this occurs in many hematological disorders, dehydration or malnutrition?
hypercoagulability of blood
this is caused by the presence of an IV catheter in the same area for longer than 48 hours, fracture that causes damage to blood vessel, diabetes, trauma or external pressure?
damage to endothelium(inner lining of vein)
damaged endothelium has decreased --------------?
fibrinolytic properties(breaking down of clot)
this is an inflammation of the membrane that surrounds and protects the lungs (the pleura), the pain is called?
pleuritic pain
this is an inflammation of the membrane that surrounds and protects the lungs (the pleura), the pain is called?
pleuritic pain
the 3 factors that must be present in order for a thrombus to occur stasis of blood flow, hypercoagulability of blood, and damage to endothelium are all called?
virchow's triad
this is deformity caused b prolonged flexion of muscle, resulting in the shortening of the muscle, freezing of joints and inability to extend it?
contracture
this is a clot loosely attached to a vein?
thrombus
this is a clot loosely attached to an inflamed vein?
thrombophlebitis
how many days a week and min a day should adults exercise?
5-7

30 min or more of moderate intensity physical activity?
exercise should be done in bouts of at least -------- min and should be ---------- in intensity?
10 min

moderate
examples of moderate activity?
-walking briskly (3-4mph)
-cycling for pleasure (<10 mph)
-general house cleaning
t or f? the greater the duration and/or intensity the greater the benefits of exercise?
true
who should get at least 20 min. of aerobic exercise every 42 hours at 60% intensity?
the elderly(with consent from a DR.)
this is a form of therapeutic immobility?
bed rest
what are some benefits of bed rest?
less need of oxygen by body cells, reduce metabolism, more resources go to healing and not activity,reduces pain(less need for meds), prevent labor/miscarriages.
what are some harmful effects of bed rest?
-psychoneurologic
-metabolic sys
-respiratory sys
name some psychoneurologic system complications with immobility?
< sensory output, > awareness of limitations,depressions, change in sleep, impaired coping.
name some metabolic system complications with immobility?
negative nitrogen balance, anorexia, negative calcium balance, decreased metabolic rate.
in the immobilized client, catabolism is > anabolism. this creates a--- --- ---- and depletion of ------- ------ that are essential for muscle building?
negative nitrogen balance

protein stores
this is due to decreased metabolic rate and increased catabolism?
anorexia
this is due to greater amounts of calcium being extracted from the bone than can be replaced?
negative calcium balance
name the 3 parts of respiration?
-pulmonary ventilation
-diffusion of gasses b/alveoli &capillaries
-transport of O2 from blood to cells
name some respiratory system complications with immobility?
-decreased expansion of lungs
-reduced gas exchange
decreased hemoglobin(hbg)
complications with decreased expansion of lugs?
this will reduce vital capacity(< O2 getting to lungs.
complications with reduced gas exchange in the alveoli?
blood and mucus pool in dependent areas in lungs, viscous secretions, coughing mechanism impairment(not being able to inhale to the max)
what should the nurse look for when assessing an immobilized client?
rate an quality of respirations, use of accessory muscles when breathing, pulse rate(rapid pulse rate 1st sign of lack of O2),temperature,coughing effort,signs of hypoxia/cyanosis.
what are some effects of immobility on the cardiovascular system?
diminished cardiac reserve, orthostatic hypotension, increased use of valsalva maneuver, dependent edema,increased incidence of thrombus formation.
effects of diminished cardiac reserve on the cardiovascular system are?
the resting heart rate will increase 0.5 beats per min/ supine makes the heart work harder/ rapid heart rate reduces diastolic pressure and coronary blood flow.
effects of orthostatic hypotension on the cardiovascular system?
drop in blood pressure 20s and 10d with a change in position.
this is a sympathetic reflex that automatically causes vasoconstriction in lower extremities upon standing and caused inadequate cerebral perfusion?
orthostatic hypotension( nurses should use antiembolic hose(TED hose)
effects of increased valsalva maneuver on the cardiovascular system?
this causes a decrease in heart rate.
this occurs when a person strains against a closed glottis which causes a decrease in intrathoracic pressure, decrease pulse, and a large volume of blood to rush into the heart?
valsalva maneuver
effects of dependent edema on the cardiovascular system?
muscles do not contract and no longer pump blood(blood pools in dependent areas(vein valves do not work), venous pressure increase and serous fluid is pushed into interstitial space(causing edema)
what are some effects of a thrombus formation on the cardiovascular system?
the thrombus could become a embolus and lodge in the heart.
what are some nursing interventions for respiratory problems?
diaphragmetic abdominal breathing esercises/turning and positioning, respiratory toiletry(incentive spirometer/ball,percussion,)/ adequate h2o(break up sputum)/ use discretion when giving meds.
nursing interventions for preventing thrombus formation?
make client mobile/ position client properly/ no pillow avoid crossing legs/ elevate foot of bed/increase fluid intake/antiembolic hose/dont rub legs/ anticoagulants.
these clots are palpable, firm, subcutaneous cordlike vein/ surrounding area may be tender to touch/increased white blood cell count/ edema of extremity?
superficial clot
this clot causes pain in leg/ unilateral leg edema/ warm skin around area of clot/positive homan's sign?
deep vein thrombosis(DVT)
characteristics of a pulmonary embolus?
sudden onset of unexplained dyspnea, tachypnea or tachycardia/cough/chest pain/hemoptysis/crackles in lungs.
late signs of a pulmonary embolism?
sudden change in mental status as a result of hypoxemia/may have cyanosis, shock, pallor, severe dyspnea, crushing chest pain, cardiac arrest.
name some interventions for a pulmonary embolism(PE)
oxygen, anticoagulants, surgical intervention, thrombolytic agents(streptokinase=dissolve clots/cause hemorrhage/urokinase=prevent clotting.
what are some nursing interventions for respiratory problems?
diaphragmetic abdominal breathing esercises/turning and positioning, respiratory toiletry(incentive spirometer/ball,percussion,)/ adequate h2o(break up sputum)/ use discretion when giving meds.
nursing interventions for preventing thrombus formation?
make client mobile/ position client properly/ no pillow avoid crossing legs/ elevate foot of bed/increase fluid intake/antiembolic hose/dont rub legs/ anticoagulants.
these clots are palpable, firm, subcutaneous cordlike vein/ surrounding area may be tender to touch/increased white blood cell count/ edema of extremity?
superficial clot
this clot causes pain in leg/ unilateral leg edema/ warm skin around area of clot/positive homan's sign?
deep vein thrombosis(DVT)
characteristics of a pulmonary embolus?
sudden onset of unexplained dyspnea, tachypnea or tachycardia/cough/chest pain/hemoptysis/crackles in lungs.
late signs of a pulmonary embolism?
sudden change in mental status as a result of hypoxemia/may have cyanosis, shock, pallor, severe dyspnea, crushing chest pain, cardiac arrest.
name some interventions for a pulmonary embolism(PE)
oxygen, anticoagulants, surgical intervention, thrombolytic agents(streptokinase=dissolve clots/cause hemorrhage/urokinase=prevent clotting.