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232 Cards in this Set

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above the line personel
a budgetary division reffering to nontechnical personel
actor
a person male or female who appears on camera in dramatic roles. Actors always portray someone else
below the line personnel
a budgetary division referring to technical personnel
blocking
carefully worked-out movement and actions by the talent and for all mobile television equipment
cue card
a large, hand lettered card that contains copy, usually held next to the camera lens by the floor personnel
foundation
a makeup such as rouge and eye shawdow is applied
make-up
cosmetics used to enhance, correct, or change appearance
nontechnical production personnel
People concerned primarily with nontechnical production matters that lead from the basic idea to the final screen image. Also called above-the-line personnel
pancake
a makeup base, or foundation makeup, usually water soulble and applied with small sponge
pan stick
A foundation makeup with grease base.used to cover beard shadow or prominent skin blemish
performer
a person who appears on camera non-dramatic shows. Performers play themselves and do not assume someone elses character
talent
collective name for all performers and actors who appear regularly on television
Technical production personnel
people who operate the production equipment. also called below-the-line personnel.
telepromter
a prompting device that projects the moving (usually computer generated) copy ove rthe lens so that the talent can read it without losing eye-contact with the viewer. Also called auto cue
Television Objectives
Audience
entertaining
advertisers for target audience
focus group
pro-social message
Which is more ecpensive film or tape...takes more time?
film more expensive and takes more time
format
the langth of the show
how you set up the show
camera blocking
have to decided which shot from which camera you want
soap operas are taped in...
segments
single camera takes--------- to shoot
longer
continuity
keeping thins the same betweeen takes
the ratio for how much you should shoot is
10 to 1

or 13 minutes for a minute 15 second spot
single camera
commercials
dramas
some interviews
Post production
strike the set
editing
(live on tape ideally should not need editing)
type of camera we have
sony dxc d35
Cervo lens
motor run lens
full shot
head to toe
knee shot
just above the knees
medium shot
just above the elbow
FIst
30 seconds
winding finer
15 seconds
stretch
keep going
hand over hand
speed up
finger to the nose
your running out of time
FIlm is...
photographic

Load camera with chemical plastic strip the light hits the strip causing a chemical reaction
film roll---- frames per second
24
persistance of vision
your brain recongnises it as a continuous picture
VIdeo is...
an electronic process

it breaks the picture into pixels that convert the light into electrical signals
the tube that converts light into electrical signals
cathode ray tube
the electron beam scans......lines
525
it scans in-----
interlace it scans the even then the odds
it gives you the odd then the even field in --- of a second
1/60th
on video there are--- frames per second
30
kinoscope
tape film off of a tv
tvs limitations
shape limitation ( 3 by 4)
size limitation (small screen)
Moire effect
rainbow of colors that vibrate
High resolution
has lots of fine detail
low resolution
simple detail
NTSC
national television systems committee
the ntsc selected
the first color system for the country which was RCAs system
the three colors of television are..
red green and blue
if you mix red and green you get...
yellow
if you mix red and blue...
magenta
if you mix green and blue ...
Cyan
if you mix all three color green blue and red you get...
white
Hue
tint of the color
saturation
purity or the strength
luminance
same as the brightness
Types of internal optics
prisms, Mirrors, striped filter, pirsims are the best
the internal optics...
split the colors into their primary color
PAL
another form of tv system Phase alternate line
SECAM
another form of TV system SEquential color and memory
the tv system differed because...
of political, economic and engineering reasons

Isolation,different power system,wanted to support there engineers
NTSC countries
canada,costa rica,japan
PAL countries
sweden, england, germany, poland, italy
SECAM countries
france
PAL and Secam have---- lines
625
we are leavign NTSC and moving to---
HD
HDTV
1080 i...1080 line using interlances scanning has 30 frames per second has a 9 by 16 frame and has cd quality sound
720p
progressive scanning 720 lines reads the lines in order
480
standard digital it is progressive so it reads the lines in order
which takes up more space in the spectrum digital or analog
analog
the lights needed for indoor lighting of wkus studio camera
3200k
for outhdorr lighting
5600k 1/8nd
outdoor cloudy light
5600k
outdorr extreme light
5600k 1/64nd
nd in 5600k i/64nd stands for
neutral density
the fstop changes...
the iris opening
the widest the fstop opens to is
f- 1.8
the smallest the fstop opens to is
f-16
depth of field
area of exceptable focus across different planes of depth
shallow depth
only one object is in focus
the depth of field is shaped by
1) iris setting (fstop)
2) distance between camera and object
3)focal length
focal length
the distance from the center of the optics to the target plate measured in mm
the shorter focal length...
the greater the depth of field
the longer the focal length...
the more shallow the depth of field
Rack focus
CHange the focus quickly in a scene
in ---- the analog signal will be turned off
2009
the electromagnetic spectrum has never....
been sold before
arc
to move the camera in a slightly curved dolly or truck
CAm head
a camera mounting head for heavy cameras that permits extremely smooth tlts and pans
cant
tilting the shoulder mounted or ahndheld camera sideways
crab
sideways motion of the camera cranes dolly base
crane
motion pictures camera support
boom
to move the camera up or down
dolly
move the camera toward or away from the subject
fluid head
most popular moving camera head allows for smooth tilts and pans
high hat
cyloindricla camera head that can be bolted to a dolly or sckenery no need for a tripod or pedestal
jib arm
permits the operator to raise loweer tougue (SIDEWAYS) the camera while tilting and panning
monopod
a single pole you can mount a camera on
pan
to turn the camera horizontaly
pedestal
heavy camera dolly that permits raising and lowering the camera while in the air
quick release plate
mounting plate used to attatch camocordered and eng cameras to a fluid head
robotic pedestal
guided by computerised system this can store and execute a great number of camera moves
spreader
a triangular base mount that provided stabillity and locks the tripod tips in the place to prevent the legs from spreading
steadicam
camera mount whose built-in springs hold the camera steady while the operator moves
tilt
to point the camera up and down
tougue
to move the boom or jib arm with the camera from left to right or right to left
track
another name for truck
tripod
a three legged camera mount. can be connected to a dolly for easy maneiverability
truck
to move the camera laterally from left to right or vise vera
wedge mount
wedge shaped plate attatched to the bottom of a studio camera used to attach heavier cameras
zoom
to change the len in order to get a closer picture
z axis
line representing an extension of the lens from the camera to the horizon the depth deminsion
two shot
framing of two people
three shot
framing of three people
shot sheet
a list of every shot a paticular camera has to get. it is attatched to the camers to help the camera operator remember the shot sequance
over the sholder shot
camera person looks over a persons shoulder at another person
noseroom
the space left in frount of a person looking or pointing toward the edge of the screen
medium shot
just abover the elbow
knee shot
just abover the knee
leadroom
the space left in front of a person or an object moving toward the edge of the screen
headroom
the space left between the top of the head and the upper screen edge
follow focus
maintaining the focus of the lens in a shallow depth of field so the image in continously kept sharp
extreme long shot
shows the object from a great distance
cross shot
shows the object with very tight frameing
closure
mentally filling in spaces of an incomplete picture
bust shot
framing of a person from the upper torso to the top of the head
automatic gain control
regulates the volume of the audio or video level automaticly without using manual controls
full shot
head to toe
480p
the loweset resolution of DTV it has 480 lines and is progressive (it scanns line by line
720p
720 line scans in progressive (line by line)
1080i
1080 lines scans it in interlaced frame is formed by two scanning fields
this is HDTV
analog
a signal that fluctuates exactly like the original stimulus
aspect ratio
the width to height proportion; ANalog is 3 by 4 : HDTV is 9 by 16
Binary
a number system with the base of two
binary digit (bit)
the smallest amount of information a computer can hold. A charge is represented by a one, zero or nothing
coding
to change the quantizzed values into the binary code
compression
reducing the amount of data to be stored or transmitted by using coding schemes that pack the data into les space
decoding
the reconstruction of video from the code
digital
usually means the binary system the representation of data
digital television
has higher resolution
quantizing
a step that digitalization of an analog signal
downloading
the transfer of files that are sent in data packets
field
a location away from the studio
RGB
red green and blue the basic colors of television
refresh rate
the number of complete digital scanning cycles per second
streaming
a way of delevering and recieving digital audio or video continously as the delievery is in progree
feed
signal transmission from one program source to another
contrast range of analog tv
40:1
contrast range of Hdtv
100:1
limitations of TV
Small screen (closeups and medium shots) Aspect ratio (3x4, 9x16) Resolution (525 lines good lighting) contrast range (40:1, 100:1)
video tape gets...
30 frames per second
internal optics...
split color into its primary tv color
indoor lighting
3200k
outdoor lighting
5600k 1/8nd
outdoor cloudy
5600k
outdoor extreme
5600k 1/64nd
nd
neutral density
depth of field
area of exceptable focus across different plans of depth
shallow depth
one object is in focus
Focul length
distance from the center of the optics to the target place measured in mm
shorter the focul length...
...the greater the depth of field
long focal length...
...shallow depth of field
iris setting
measured in Fstops
F-16
give you a closer depth of fild; smallest opening
F-1.8
largest opening
Rack focus
change in focus
in 2009...
...the analog signal will be turned off
focul length of 25mm is a...
normal lens; medium
focul length of less than 25 mm
short lens; wide angle
focul length greater than 25mm
long lens
focal length of 100mm and beyond
telephoto lens
telephots lens
makes movement slower toward the camera; objects in the distande look larger; space between objects compress
short lens
objects look further apart; movement is faster toward the camera; objects closer to the camera look larger
fish eye lens
180 panorama view
lens splitter
bifocal lens; in focus from close-up to far away
star burst
light reflecting off metal creates little stars
Diffusion filter
sofens the light also sofens wrinkles
netral density
this blocks out some of the light
contrast filter
either focus' on the white or the dark normally it concentrates on the white first
the human eye can see...
1000 to 1
a soft contrast filter...
pulls the whites down
a low contrast filter...
....pulls up the dark
televisoion has trouble reproducing...
reds
to help resolution stick to....
bold simple lines
smear
bright light with low light
for a birthday cake smear the in studio camera candles would have to be 250 foot
Gain
allows you to push the electronics to pick up and image
p.L.
stands for private line or phone line
line-out
the line that carries the final video or audio output for broadcast
line moniter
the moniter that shows only the line out pictures
beam splitter
compact internal optical system of prisims that dvided the color into RGB
how many candles would be needed to light our studio
250 foot candles
sync pulses
electronic pulses that syncronise the scanning in the various wideo origination sources
shading
adjusting picture contrast to the optimal contrast range; controlling the color and the black and white levels
pixel
short for picture lement, the more picture elements the higher the picture quality
signal to noise ratio
the relation of the strength of desired signal to to the accompanying electronic interferance; a high s/n ratio is desirable
aperture
iris opening of a lens usually measured in f-stops
calibrate
to keep the lens in focus throughout the zoom
Four stages of PRoduction
preproduction
setup and rehersal
production
postproduction
Four stages of PRoduction
preproduction
setup and rehersal
production
postproduction
parts of setup
set construction
hang and focus lights
audio setup
prepare video and film playbacks
Parts of rehersal
cry rehersal
camera blocking
run-through
dress rehersal
LIVE production
program starts and ends according to preplanned airtime
Live on tape
production proceeds through without stops.edit only in special cases
Taped in segments
production is tped in short segments with multiple cameras. shooting schedule is planned for maximum convenience and effeciency
single camera
production is teped with a single camera allows for maximum creative control
multiple camera
all editing done postproduction; each camera goes to seperate vtr
postproduction things to do
studio strike
video tape editing
audio sweetening
evalutation of program to see if it met its objectives
Range extender
an optical attatchment to the zoom lens that extendes its focal length
minumum object distance
how close the camera can get to an object and still focus on it
macro position
a lens settign that allows it to be focuded and very close distances
narrow angle lens
agives a close up view of an event relatively far away from the camera
slow lens
a lens that permits relatively small amount of light through its maximum aperture...can only be used in well lighted areas
selective focus
emphasizing ans object in a shallow depth of field through focus while keep the foreground and or backround out of focus
servo zoom control
zoom control that activates motor driven mechanisms
fast lens
a lens that permits a relatively great amount of light to pass through at its maximum aperture...can be used in low light conditions
field of view
the portion of the secene visible through a paticular lens
CCU
camera control unit ( this eneables the video operator to adjust the camera picture during the show)
CCD
sharged coupled device (the chip that is the imaging elements in a television camera)
Chromance channel (c-channel)
consists of the three colors of television REd GREEN BLUE
contrast ratio
the difference between the brightest and darkest portion in the picture.

tv is 40 to 1 (the brightest spot in the picture should not be fourty times that of the darkest part)
white balance
the adjustments of the color circuits in the camera to produce a white color in lighting of various color temperatures
Electronic Cinema
a high defenition camera that has the frame rate of 24 frames per second
sampling
the process of reading from an analog signal many spaced portions for conversion into digital code
tapeless system
recording etc. of video onto a computer rather than video tape
EFP
electronic field production- television production outside of the studio
ENG
Electronic news gathering- transmitted live or immidiately after postproduction (requires setup)
intercom
intercommunication system; used by productiona nd technical personaell to communicate via headphones etc.
preview monitor
any moniter that show the next source of video
program speaker
a loudspeeker in the control room that controls the program sound
studio talkback
a public adress system form the control room to the studio