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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anatomical of two subdivison
CNS and PNS
CNS
Anatomic
Brain and spinal cord, prtotective coverings (meninges) and fluid filled spaces
pERIPHERAL n s
Anatomic
cRANIAL AND SPINAL NERVES
Physiology or functionally into two systems
Somatic Nervous System
and
Autonomic (Visceral Nervous system (AnS)
Functional: Somatic NS
body wall ( muscles, skin, and mucous membranes)
Functional: Autonomic
Contains portions of the central and peripheral systems. It controls the activities of the smooth muscles , glands of the internal organs and the blood vessels and returns sensory- efferent or afferent
The Brain subdivisions
Cerebrum
Brain stem
Cerebellum
Which is phylogentically advanced?
Cerebrum
Cerebrum (forebrain) consist of
telecephalon and diencephalon
telencephalon
include cerebral cortex (gray matter), subcorttical white matter
white matter
carries high lipid-rich myelin, not neuronal cell bodies or synapies
Major subdivisions of diencephalon
thalammus and hypothalamus
brain stem consist of
midbrain (mesencephalon), pons, and medulla oblongata.
cerebellum includes
vermis and two lateral lobes
Ventricles
a system of spaces
The brain accounts for
2% of the body's weight, and contains billions of neurons and glial cells
Functional Units include
neurons, axon, nuclei, ganglica
Neurons are
specialized cells that receive and send signals to other cells through ther extension or axons
Neurons
large cell bodies and long axons
interneurons
small cell bodies and short axon, transmit impulse locally
Nerve cells serving a common function
are frequently grouped together into nuceli
fOutside CNS where nerve cells are grouped and connected are called
ganglia
Glial cells
support the activity of neurons 10:1
What is mediated by primitive behaviors
monosynaptic chain of two neurons connected by a synapse and require larger polysnyaptic
Fasciculi
Connections or pathways between groups of neurons in the CNS are in the form of fiber bundles or tracts
Columns or funiculi
aggregates of tracts seen in the spinal cord
Tracts in cerebrum to the brain or spinal cord
descend tract
Tracts ascend
spinal cord to cerebrum
Verticcal connections
decussate or cross from one side of the CNS
Horizontal (lateral)
commisures
Multiple tracts
redudancy
Tracts and Commisures
fasciculi, columuns, ascend, descend, decussate, commisures, redudancy
Symmetry of the nervous system
bilateral system. cerebrum and cerebellum are organized into right and left hemisphers. Brain stem and spinal cord is bilateral sysmetry
General theme in construction of the nervous system is
decussation and crossed representation
right side of the brain receives information and controls motor function pertaining to, the left side of world vice verca
Decussation and crossed representations
sensations from body's right side are procced in
somatosensory cortex in the left cerebral hemispher
motor cortex in left cerebral hemispher controls
the right side of the external words: right arm, and leg
Major exception of crossed motor control
each cerebellar hemispher controls coordination and muscle tone on the ipsilateral side of the body
Dorsal columns
carry sensory: touch and vibration from sensory endings on the body surface upward within the spinal cord
Axons within dorsal collumns are arranged in
figers from arm, trunk, leg
Sensory map within cerebral cortex
homunculus
retinotopic
visual world witin the occipita and temporal and parietal lobes:, geometrical relationships
efferent
involved in motor functions such as contractions of muscles or secretions of glands
afferent
convey sensory stimuli from the skin mucous membranes and deeper structures