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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
completed silently except in quotes

* Hood………………………………………………………………UP
* Seat and Rudder Pedals………………………………………ADJUSTED
* Airspeed Indicator………………………………………………INDICATES ZERO
* Altimeter…………………………………………………………SET
* RMI………………………………………………………………ALIGNED
* Clock……………………………………………………………SET AND RUNNING
* Attitude Gyro……………………………………………………ERECT AND ADJUSTED
* VSI………………………………………………………………………INDICATES ZERO
* Oxygen…………………………………………………………………CHECKED, BLINKING
* Battery Switch………………………………………………………ON
* Inverters………………………………………………………………#1, INVERTER ANNUNCIATOR OFF
* Attitude Gyro-Erect in turns…………………………………CHECKED
* RMI-Tracks properly in turns…………………………………CHECKED
* Turn Needle-Indicates proper turn…………………………CHECKED
* Balance Ball-Free and full of fluid……………………………CHECKED
* Radios and Navaids…………………………………………………ON, SET
* Systems Test: TACAN 180º ±3.5º, VOR 0º-5 º…………………TEST

Complete before and after every maneuver

* "Instruments.....Checked"
* "Fuel Quantity.....____Left, ____Right"
* "Oxygen____P.S.I., blinker operating normally"
* “Attitude Gyro, _______”
* “RMI, ______”
* “Airspeed, ______”
* “Altimeter, ______”
* “VSI, ______”
* “Turn Needle, Balance Ball, ______”
* “Torque, ______”
* “Slave the clock second sweep hand, ______”
Constant airspeed climbs and descents

Enter VPS from normal cruise by reducing power to 300 ft-lbs. Trim right and up as the aircraft decelerates in order to maintain attitude and heading throughout the transition. Approaching 130 kts, adjust power to maintain 130 kts, and retrim. The VPS power setting is approximately 550 ft-lbs; the VPS level flight nose attitude is approximately 1 degree nose up.


1) Increase power smoothly towards 850 ft-lbs as you add a corresponding amount of right rudder. Use peripheral vision to set power.
2) As the power is being added, raise the nose to the VPS climbing attitude of approximately 4 degrees nose up.
3) Trim right rudder and slightly nose down.
4) Start attitude scan.

Level off from climb:

1) 50 feet prior to desired altitude, reduce the power toward 550 ft-lbs, adding left rudder.
2) As the power is reduced, lower the nose to the level VPS attitude.
3) Trim left rudder, nose up.
4) Reset power.
5) Start attitude scan.


1) Reduce the power toward 250 ft-lbs; add left rudder.
2) As the power is reduced, lower the nose to the VPS descending attitude approximately 2 degrees nose down.
3) Trim left rudder, slightly nose up.
4) Reset power.
5) Start attitude scan.

Level off from descent:

1) 50 feet prior to Level off altitude, add power to 550 ft-lbs.
2) As the power is added, raise the nose toward the VPS level flight attitude.
3) Trim right rudder, nose down.
4) Reset power.
5) Start level flight scan.

When directed by your instructor, return to normal cruise by setting 1015 ft-lbs torque (695 ITT max). 2-3 kts prior to 150 kts set approximately 650-700 ft-lbs and retrim.

Common errors:

1) Not transitioning to VPS

2) Not accomplishing entire sequence on the attitude gyro-shifting scan to attitude crosscheck instruments before transition is complete and trimmed.

3) Over correcting the nose attitude for airspeed or making corrections too rapidly before airspeed has a chance to settle down. Remember the airspeed indicator lags behind nose movement and it will not react immediately after a gyro change is made. Retrim.

4) Not trimming the rudder, resulting in heading drift.

5) Fixating on the torque gauge.
Constant rate turns (CRT)

1) For practice, ½ SRT will be started in normal cruise on a cardinal heading and with the clock’s second hand on 6 or 12, using a three second lead to compensate for attitude change.

2) Roll into a turn on the gyro using the 10% rule to establish the desired bank. Once the attitude is set on the gyro, commence the crosscheck scan of turn needle for an exact one needle-width deflection and altimeter and VSI for nose attitude.

3) When the RMI is 30 degrees past the cardinal heading, check for 20 seconds elapsed time on the clock. The next checkpoint is 60 degrees of turn and the clock for 40 seconds of elapsed time.

NOTE - There are two valid reasons for checking the heading change against the clock rather than checking the time prior to referring to the heading.
1. The instruments are arranged on the panel in groups. The attitude gyro, RMI, altimeter, and airspeed indicator are grouped together. Thus, while scanning the instruments, you do not have to shift you point of vision very far to check the RMI.
2. Since the clock tells you nothing about the aircraft’s attitude, the time spent scanning is actually wasted. If the clock is checked only once every 20 seconds, rather than 4-5 times, you will be able to devote more time to the attitude instrument scan.

4) If by checking the RMI and clock, you find that the turn is less than ½ SRT, you must then increase the AOB and check the turn needle for a greater deflection in order to catch up with the clock. When the turn has caught up with the clock, the AOB must be readjusted to maintain ½ SRT. To roll out of the desired heading, use the 1/3 rule for constant AOB turns to gyro heading.

5) Never use more than 20 degrees of bank to catch up or less than 10 degrees of bank to slow the rate. If larger corrections are made, the rate of correction will be too rapid and you bypass the heading. Have patience and catch up slowly but deliberately.

Procedures for the STANDARD-RATE TURN (SRT):

1) Timed SRT’s are accomplished in the same manner as ½ SRT except at an airspeed of 120 kts vice 150 kts (slow cruise config). Roll into the turn on the attitude gyro doubling the 10% rule and crosscheck the turn needle for two-needle-width deflection, but do not exceed 30 degrees AOB.

2) Since you are now turning twice as fast (3 degrees per second), it will be necessary to check the clock every 30 degrees for ten seconds of elapsed time. The scan pattern corrections for desired rate of turn and the procedure for leading the rollout on the desired heading are exactly the same as the ½ SRT.

3) Remember to crosscheck the nose attitude with the altimeter and VSI making power and attitude adjustments as necessary due to the resultant degrease in vertical lift.

4) Never use more than 30 degrees of bank to catch up or less than 15 degrees of bank to slow the rate.

NOTE - Transition from 150 KIAS to 120 KIAS (slow cruise configuration) by reducing power to 300 ft-lbs. Retrim.
Initial Climb to Altitude (ICA)
1) Switch oxygen control panel to normal from 100% and report:

ICS “O2 normal.”

2) Add power to 1015 ft-lbs torque and monitor ITT.

3) Raise the nose slightly above the climbing attitude to 12-15 degrees nose up. Trim right and up as the airspeed decreases.

4) As the airspeed approaches climb airspeed (120 kts), readjust the nose to the climbing attitude (approximately 6-8 degrees nose up) and retrim.

5) Once established at 120 kts, start the turns by rolling into an AOB on the attitude gyro equal to 10% of the airspeed (120 kts = 12 degrees angle of bank). Once the attitude is set on the gyro, commence wing position crosscheck on the turn needle for an exact one needle width turn and a nose position crosscheck on the airspeed indicator for 120 kts.

6) Continue turns between assigned headings by making a smooth reversal from one turn into another. Lead reversals by 1/3 rule, trimming the aircraft as necessary.

7) When within 200 feet of the assigned level off altitude, stop the turn on the first reversal heading that you come to an continue the climb on that heading.

8) Begin the level off by smoothly lowering the nose towards the level flight attitude (about halfway towards the horizon) in order to both accelerate and climb. Trim left and down as the aircraft accelerates.

9) Upon reaching the desired level off altitude, continue to trim left and down, and allow the aircraft to accelerate towards normal cruise airspeed while maintaining altitude. 2-3 kts prior to 150 kts, smoothly reduce power to 650-700 ft-lbs and retrim the aircraft to maintain level flight.
Constant rate climbs/descents (CRC/D)
Constant rate climbs and descents are performed in VPS configuration. They are started on a numbered heading using a 3 second lead prior to the clock’s second hand reaching a 6 or 12 to compensate for attitude change. The transitions, scan, power settings, and trim are the same as constant airspeed climbs and descents with the inclusion of the VSI and clock as additional performance indicators.

In order to check the performance in a 1000 fpm descent, crosscheck the VSI and utilize checkpoints on the altimeter. For every 250 feet of altitude change, check the clock for 15 seconds of elapsed time or every 500 feet, 30 seconds of elapsed time.

If the descent becomes less than 1000 fpm, the rate of descent must be increased to a value greater than 1000 fpm to catch up with the time schedule. Be decreasing power and changing nose attitude (to maintain constant airspeed), you will increase the rate of descent. As soon as a checkpoint indicates that the aircraft is back on performance, attitude and power are again adjusted to maintain a 1000 fpm descent.

Let’s consider the corrections necessary for a rate of descent greater than the desired rate of 1000 fpm. If, for example, after descending 500 feet, only 25 seconds have elapsed, you are ahead of desired performance; power must be added and nose attitude adjusted up to slow the are of descent to less than 1000 fpm. As soon as the altitude change and time agree (500 feet at 30 seconds or 750 at 45 seconds), power and attitude must then be adjusted to a value between the initial setting, which resulted in a descent greater than 1000 fpm, and the first adjustment, which gave less than 1000 fpm descent.

NOTE - These power and attitude adjustments will continue to be made until altitude change and elapsed time coincide with a 1000 fpm descent. A constant rate cannot be maintained without a constant airspeed (130 kts), therefore prior to making power corrections, crosscheck airspeed.

The same principles apply for 1000 fpm climbs. A 1000 fpm climb will normally be achieved by using 850 ft-lbs torque. However, if you determine that the rate is insufficient and the addition of power to maximum allowable does not yield a 1000 fpm climb, maintain 130 kts, regardless of rate of climb.
Final Approach Configuration (FAC)
100 KIA, gear down, flaps down
Approx 700-750ft lbs
Nose Att: approx 0 degrees
S-1 pattern
This pattern is flown in VPS (550 ft-lbs, 1 degree nose up, 130 kts) and on any numbered heading. It consists of a 1000 fpm descent for 1000 feet, followed by a 1000 fpm climb for 1000 feet. This series of descents and climbs is performed twice.


1) Descent. Three (3) seconds prior to 6 or 12 on clock, reduce power to 250 ft-lbs, lower the nose to 2 degrees nose down, and trim on the gyro for a 130 kt descent. Begin your constant rate descent scan. Checkpoints are 250 feet of altitude equals 15 seconds on the clock.

a) If ahead of schedule. Check your airspeed (every knot counts). If the clock is say at 30 seconds and your altitude has dropped 600 feet, add power and pull the nose up a degree or so to maintain airspeed until back on schedule.

b) If behind schedule. Check your airspeed! If the clock is say at 15 seconds and you have only dropped 200 feet you’ll need to pull power slightly (25-50 ft-lbs) and lower the nose to maintain 130 kts.

2. Climb. Three (3) seconds prior to the end of the descending minute or 50 feet prior to the end of the 1000 ft descent, whichever comes first, begin your climb. Add power to 850 ft-lbs, raise the nose to 4 degrees nose up, and trim on the gyro for a 130 kt climb. Begin your constant rate climb scan. Checkpoints are 250 feet of altitude equals 15 seconds on the clock.

a) If ahead of schedule. Check your airspeed (every knot counts). If the clock is say at 15 seconds and your altitude has increased by 300 feet, reduce power and lower the nose slightly until you regain profile.

b) If behind schedule. Check your airspeed! If the clock is say at 30 seconds and you have only climbed 400 feet you’ll need to add power and raise the nose to maintain 130 kts.

3. Descent. Three (3) seconds prior to the end of the climbing minute or 50 feet prior to reaching your original altitude, whichever comes first, begin your descent. Simultaneously, reduce power to 250 ft-lbs, apply left rudder (for power reduction), and lower the nose to 2 degrees nose down. The rest of the procedures for the second down/up are the same as the first.

In both climb and descent the final checkpoint will be 250 feet prior to the transition because even if there is an error, there isn’t a lot of time correct it. What it is good for is to determine whether to transition on clock or altitude. For example, if in a climb, the altimeter reads 250 feet to go and 10 seconds prior to transition time, you are behind in the climb rate, and will have to transition on the clock (3 seconds prior).

4. Completing the Maneuver. Level off on your original altitude in VPS. Return to normal cruise (150 kts, 0 degrees nose up, and 650-700 ft-lbs) when directed by your instructor.

Common errors:

1. Not entering VPS prior to starting the pattern.
2. Not transitioning at proper time or altitude. After the last 250 feet checkpoint you should anticipate the transition.
3. Not transitioning entirely on gyro, especially attempting the transition while watching the altimeter.
4. Not using rudder during power changes, resulting in heading drift.
Basic Approach Configuration (BAC)
120 KIAS, gear down, flaps up
Approx 700-750 ft lbs (Below 10,000 ft 650-700 ft lbs)
Nose Att: Approx 2 degrees up
Penetration maneuver
This procedures is normally executed over a radio facility; however, for training purposes only, the airwork procedures will be taught by assigning a penetration heading and level off altitude with no reference to a radio facility.


1) Following at least one (1) minute on the penetration heading, the instructor will pass the controls.

2) CHECKLIST. Once you have control, complete the penetration checklist aloud to your instructor:


3) PENETRATION DESCENT. When the checklist is complete, you are established on your penetration heading, and cleared by your instructor:

a) POWER. ATTITUDE. Reduce power to IDLE, and simultaneously lower the nose 13-15 degrees nose down.

b) TRIM. Trim left and down as the aircraft accelerates to 180 kts. About 2-3 kts prior adjust the nose (11-13 degrees nose down) to maintain 180 kts and RETRIM. You should be falling at 4000 fpm.

c) 10000’ CHECKPOINT. Commence a LEFT 30 degree AOB descending turn for 210 degrees. The nose will have to be adjusted up approximately 2 degrees and trimmed up because of the slight loss of vertical lift.

d) ROLLOUT. CLOCK. Upon rolling out of turn (using 1/3 rule) your lift will increase you place ahead and lower the nose about 2 degrees to maintain 180 kts. Check the clock immediately and fly a straight leg for one minute.

e) ONE MINUTE LATER. Execute a shallow RIGHT turn (15 deg AOB) to the reciprocal of the initial penetration heading (approximately 30 degrees of heading change will be required.

f) 1000’ ABOVE LEVEL OFF. Increase power to 250 ft-lbs and slow the rate of descent by smoothly raising the nose half-way (5-7 degrees nose down) toward the level flight attitude. As the aircraft decelerates, check that the VSI has stabilized, and set a 500-1000 fpm rate of descent. Continually ease the nose up as airspeed decreases towards 120 kts. and TRIM right/up.

g) LEVEL OFF. Normally, you will reach the assigned LEVEL OFF altitude before reaching 120 kts. If so, begin level off 50’ prior to assigned altitude. Leave the PCL at 250 ft-lbs until airspeed approaches 120 kts (then advance to 450-500). Continue to trim right/up. The nose should be about 1.5 degrees nose up, when on the level off altitude.

NOTE - This transition to a Level Off can occur prior to the completion of the 210 degree turn, during the one-minute straight leg, or even after the turn back to the reciprocal heading. It is dependent upon the assigned Level Off altitude and the rate of descent.

h) COMPLETE. The penetration maneuver is complete when the aircraft is on the reciprocal of the penetration heading at 120 kts and on assigned LEVEL OFF altitude.

Common errors:

1) Not maintaining attitude scan while performing penetration checklist approaching penetration site. Losing or gaining altitude.
2) Not trimming nose down during transition to 180 kt descent.
3) Not raising nose slightly (2 degrees) in 210 degree turn.
4) Over controlling nose during Level Off; poor trim during last 1000 feet of descent.
5) Not watching nose attitude during turn to reciprocal heading. The nose will tend to fall through during this turn.
6) Not timing out the penetration turn.
7) Not trimming for deceleration from 180 to 120 kts.
Vertical Performance Speed (VPS)
Enter VPS from normal cruise by reducing power to 300 ft-lbs. Trim right and up as the aircraft decelerates in order to maintain attitude and heading throughout the transition. Approaching 130 kts, adjust power to maintain 130 kts, and retrim. The VPS power setting is approximately 550 ft-lbs; the VPS level flight nose attitude is approximately 1 degree nose up.
3 degrees per second
AOB approx 20% of KIAS
Two need widths (balanced flight)
GCA maneuver
1) CONFIGURATION. The GCA maneuver is begun in normal cruise on a cardinal heading and base altitude. While maintaining heading and altitude, make a level transition to the basic approach configuration (BAC):

a) Reduce power to 450 ft-lbs torque applying slight left rudder pressure to compensate for the power reduction.

b) Check airspeed below 150 kts and lower the gear. Maintain the level flight attitude on the attitude gyro and anticipate trim, right and up.

c) Slowly raise the nose, to maintain altitude while decelerating to 120 kts, toward the BAC level attitude (approximately 2 degrees nose up). Trim right and up.

d) As you approach 120 kts, readjust power to approximately 700-750 ft-lbs. Maintain 120 kts and retrim.

2) Perform the landing checklist down to flaps, reporting each item to you instructor. Check landing lights on.


3) Make a standard rate turn (SRT) using a two-needle-width turn in either direction for 90 degrees of heading change while maintaining altitude. Lead the rollout by 1/3 rule.

4) Upon rolling out of the turn, stabilize the aircraft on altitude heading and airspeed.

5) Make a level flight transition to the Final Approach Configuration (FAC) by reducing power to 450 ft-lbs of torque, checking the airspeed below 120 kts, and lowering full flaps. As the flaps extend, smoothly lower the nose toward the FAC attitude (0 deg) in order to counteract the aircraft’s tendency to gain altitude as the flaps extend. Trim right and up as the aircraft decelerates to maintain altitude and heading. Approaching 100 kts, advance the power to approximately 700-750 ft-lbs of torque and retrim.

6) check the landing gear and flaps fulldown and report:


7) Using a SRT make a level turn in the same direction as the last turn for 90 degrees of heading change. Maintain altitude and airspeed. Lead the rollout by 1/3 rule.

8) Stabilize momentarily, then reduce power to 550-600 ft-lbs torque, lower the nose to approximately 2-3 nose down, maintain 100 kts and descend for 1000 feet. Establish a 500 fpm rate of descent on the VSI by adjusting power as necessary. Remember, nose attitude controls airspeed and power controls rate of descent. Be sure to include the VSI as part of you systematic scan. Retrim.

9) During the descent, the instructor will give approximately four heading changes of 3-10 degrees each.

10) Upon completion of the 1000 foot descent, execute a missed approach by:

a) Advancing power to 1015 ft-lbs, monitor ITT, and coordinate right rudder pressure to maintain balanced flight, ball centered, and…

b) Simultaneously raising the nose to 4 degrees nose up and holding a positive climbing attitude.

c) Check for a positive rate of climb on the VSI, and airspeed at or below 120 kts and retract gear and flaps. Check landing lights off. Check and report “3 up and locked.” Raise the nose to 6 degree to prevent a descent as the flaps retract. Your airspeed will be approximately 100 kts at this point , but accelerating. Upon reaching 120 kts, readjust nose 6-8 degrees nose up.

11) Maintain 120 kts (6-8 deg nose up) and climb for 1000 feet on the last assigned heading used in the descent. Retrim.

12) 200 feet prior to level off, commence a transition to normal cruise. Trim left rudder, down elevator as airspeed increases. 2-3 kts prior to normal cruise airspeed, reduce power to 650-700 ft-lbs to maintain 150 kts. Retrim.
1/2 SRT
1 1/2 degrees per second
AOB 10% or KIAS
One need width (balanced flight)
Direct to a VOR or TACAN
1) TUNE and identify the station

a) AVIONICS CONTROL. Ensure that you have avionics control (inform the IP if you intend to TAKE avionics command). Set the desired frequency or channel. If using TACAN, ensure you are tuned to the “X” band of the desired channel.

b) IDENTIFY. Place the appropriate audio switch forward on the audio panel until the station is positively identified, then turn the switch off.

NOTE - A TACAN station identification occurs only 35 seconds. If you do not know the MORSE identification, ask you instructor.

c) TOGGLE. Ensure the appropriate NAVAID is selected using the toggle switch above the CDI/NACWS.

2) TURN. Turn to place the single needle (VOR) or double needle (TACAN) under the heading index of the RMI.

3) TWIST. Twist the omni bearing selector (OBS) knob in the CDI until the CDI centers with a white flag under “TO” in the TO/FROM indicator. The course under the index in the CDI with the CDI centered is the current course direct to the station.

4) TALK. Report course to your instructor from the CDI. The maneuver is complete. ICS “SIR, THE COURSE IS 075 DEGREES.”
1. CRC/D

2. SRC/D
1. 1000 FPM

2. 500 FPM
Unusual attitudes full panel (UA-FP)
1) CONFIGURATION. For purposes of BI training in the T-34C, the unusual attitudes will be entered from normal cruise, straight and level flight, with power set at 650-700 ft-lbs of torque.

2) CHECKLIST. CLEAR. The stall checklist and clearing turns will be performed by the instructor prior to initiating any unusual attitude maneuver.

The following limitations will be observed by the instructor while performing unusual attitudes in full panel:

1) Not to exceed 50 degrees nose high.
2) Not to exceed 40 degrees nose low.
3) Not to exceed 90 degrees of bank.

Nose Low Attitude:

The aircraft is in a nose low unusual attitude any time that the nose is below the horizon regardless of airspeed.

1) Immediately check gyro for nose and wing position.

2) Glance at airspeed, then the turn needle. If airspeed is fast (approaching 200 kts), reduce power to idle.

NOTE - Accomplish steps 1 and 2 almost simultaneously.

3) Maintain nose attitude as you level the wings on the attitude gyro and center the ball.

4) After the wings are level, raise the nose to the level flight attitude. Remember, the level flight attitude is dependent upon airspeed.

5) Return power to normal cruise power when gyro is indicating the level flight, and 2-3 kts prior to 150 kts.

6) Common errors:

a) Allowing nose to rise while rolling wings level, thus effecting a “rolling pullout.”
b) Not recognizing the need for power reduction, not returning the power to normal cruise setting upon recovery.

Nose High Attitude:

A normal nose high attitude is any attitude where the nose is less than 30 degrees nose up pitch and the airspeed is > 100 kts.

1) Immediately check gyro for nose position (<30 degrees up).

2) Cross check airspeed for 100 kts or greater and check turn needle as you retrim to the gyro.

3) Lower the nose toward the level flight attitude maintaining AOB.

4) Approaching level flight, level the wings, center the ball, and maintain balanced flight.

NOTE - The nose and wings reach the straight and level flight attitude almost instantaneously. Level flight attitude is dependent upon airspeed and will necessarily be found above the horizon for all recovery airspeeds less than 150 kts and below the horizon for airspeeds greater than 150 kts.

5) Common errors:

a) Not checking airspeed and making a normal nose high recovery with less than 100 kts.
b) Lowering the nose completely to the horizon, then rolling the wings level. This type of recovery tends to produce vertigo.

Extreme Nose High Attitude:

An extreme nose high attitude is equal to or greater than 30 degrees nose up pitch or less than 100 kts, with the nose above the horizon.

1) Immediately check gyro for nose position (30 degrees or more pitch) and wing position.

2) Crosscheck airspeed for less than 100 kts.

NOTE - Either condition mentioned in the above two steps constitutes an extreme nose high attitude. If the airspeed is less than 100 kts, the nose must be above the horizon; otherwise, it is simply nose low.

3) Crosscheck turn needle.

4) Using aileron and rudder, roll the aircraft toward, not necessarily to, 90 degrees of bank, in the direction of the turn needle.

5) Fly the nose of the aircraft through the horizon, using bottom rudder.

6) As the nose passes the horizon, roll wings level (do not pull back stick during this roll in order to avoid a rolling pullout), center the ball and maintain balanced flight.

7) Raise the nose to the level flight attitude (which is dependent upon airspeed, or course).

8) Common errors:

a) Not crosschecking airspeed. A pitch of 10 degrees nose up and an airspeed of 95 kts is an extreme nose high attitude.
b) Continuing the roll to 90 degrees AOB, even though the nose has passed the horizon.
c) Allowing the nose to rise while rolling wings level, thus effecting a “rolling pullout.”

Refer to the BI text pages 3-35 though 3-37 for a look at what the instruments should be doing.