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92 Cards in this Set

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Blood is classified as ________
a connective tissue
System functions of blood
transport system
regulatory system
defense system
Plasma leaves bloodstream, enters body tissues -
hemoconcentration
causes cells to become concentrated
Composition of plasma
- water
- proteins
- gases
- lipids
- amino acids
-metabolic wastes
-electrolytes
Composition of blood
plasma
erythrocytes
leukocytes
thrombocytes
erythrocyte
red blood cell
leukocyte
white blood cell
thrombocyte
platelet
hemoglobin
protein in blood that gives blood its red color and acts as a transport for oxygen
bilirubin
broken down hemoglobin
Leukocytes are formed where
from the bone marrow's hemocytoblasts
Leukocytes are grouped by which two cytoplasmic groups
Granulocytes
Agranulocytes
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
are all granulocytes
the most common type of granulocyte:
Neutrophils
How many types of granulocytes does the blood contain
three
What is a whole blood count and what is it comprised of
contains plasma and all its cellular components
function and purpose of neutrophils
-first to arrive at an infection site
-ingest bacteria, virus particles, fungi, or protozoa
function and purpose of eosinophils
-moderate allergic reactions
- defend against parasitic worm infestations
function and purpose of basophils
-discharge histamine and heparin to damaged tissue to promote inflammation and blood flow
nuclei contains two to five lobes
neutrophils
has a bilobed nuclei
eosinophils
contains numerous granules in the cytoplasm
basophils
Name the two types of agranulocytes
Monocytes
Lymphocytes
Purpose and function of a monocyte
large migrating agranulocyte that travels in the blood and develop into macrophages that phagocytose bacteria and debris in the tissues
what is an agranulocyte
a leukocyte cell that lacks granules in their cytoplasm
is twice the size of red blood cells and has an oval or kidney-bean-shaped nuclei
monocyte
a long-lived cell that comprises 25 to 33% of the WBC population
a Lymphocyte
is easy to recognize due to a large nucleus that occupies most of the cell
a lymphocyte
an immunity cell that contains three sub-cells
a lymphocyte
name the three sub-cells of a lymphocyte and their function
- T cell, directly attack foreign and tumor cells - cell mediated immunity
- B cells produce antibodies to attack foreign cells or protein - antibody production/hormonal immunity
- NK or natural killer cells are important in cancer prevention
the purpose of leukocytes is to perform _____________
phagocytosis
cytoplasmic streaming/diapedesis
leukocytes moving out of the circulation system
process of movement
diapedesis
the process that enables leukocytes to leave the circulatory system
leukocytosis
when the WBC count is above 10,000
leucopenia
when the WBC count falls below 5,000 (flu/ viral infections/poisonings)
normal WBC range
between 5,000 to 10,000
___________ include neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils
granulocytes
agranulocytes include _______ and ________
lymphocytes and monocytes
the most common WBC is the _______
neutrophil
___________ may be caused by acute infection
leukocytosis
________ defend against parasitic worm infestations
eosinophils
RBC
red blood count
_______ comprise 99% of all blood cells
erythrocytes
__________are small, with a concave shape
erythrocytes
what is postprandial lipemia
blood sample contains cloudy plasma because animal has eaten just before sample was drawn
anticoagulants
substances that tie up one of the clotting factors
most common anticoagulant
ethylenediaminetetracretic acid - EDTA - blocks clotting factor IV (calcium)
Romanosky stain
blue * red dyes dissolved in methyl alcohol
What type of cell structure stains blue with a Romanosky stain
alkaline
Romanoksy stain result is red is what type of cellular structure?
acidic
what is hematopoiesis?
production of all blood cells
all blood cells have a common ancestor, what is this called?
pluripotent stem cells (PPSCs)
what is a polychromatic stain?
A Romanosky type stain that stains blue or red - more than one color
What is the most widely used hematology stain?
Wright's stain
the basic part of a ___________stain is methylene blue
Wright's stain
the _________________stain is a polychromatic stain that combine two types of acidic dyes: blue & red
Romanosky
One ____________ cell has potential to develope into any one of the blood cells.
Stem cell - Pluripotent Stem Cell
neutrophils
characteristics
lifespan
function
Lifespan: 12 hrs
character: stain neutral - nuclear morphology - if immature it has a horseshoe nucleus (called a band neutrophil) - two to five segments
function: phagocytes -
known as a polymorphonuclear cell - because their nuclei have many shapes - this is the only cell that is called a PMN
Most numerous WBC in circulation found in horse, dog, and cats
a nuetrophil
Venipuncture for dog
Jugular
Cephalic
Saphenous
Venipuncture for cat
Jugular
Cephalic
Femoral
Venipuncture for horse
Jugular
extravascular hemolysis
RBCs destroyed outside the cardiovascular system
intravascular hemolysis
RBCs destroyed inside the cardiovascular system
anemia
decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood often caused by low numbers of RBCs
polycythemia
an increase in the normal number of RBCs
Defense function: WBC Phagocytes
neutrophils
eosinophils
basophils
monocytes
Defense function: WBC antibody/cellular immunity
lymphocytes
List the 3 methods of classifying WBCs
1. defense function
2. nucleus shape
3. presence or absence of staining cytoplasm
List three nuclei shapes, describe, give examples
1. polymorphonuclear = multilobed, segmented: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
2. mononuclear = single, rounded: lymphocytes
3. pleomorphic = varying, nonsegmented: monocytes
List two types of cytoplasm staining
1. granulocytes = presence of granules: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
2. agranulocytes = absence of granules: lymphocytes, monocytes
together the ______ count and the _____ count provides information about the animal's state of health
WBC count
differential count
Define Differential Count
count first 100 WBCs, track each type of WBC seen
True or False: each species has a value range that represents a normal WBC count
True
the normal neutrophil range for a dog is
60 to 70%
the normal WBC range for a dog is
6 to 17 billion per litter of blood
Define granulepoiesis
to formation of granulocytes in the bone marrow
how is leukemia classified and name example classifications
by the type of white blood cell involved:
lymphocyte leukemia; monocyte leukemia; eosinophilic leukemia
define non-specific granules
granules that immature granulocytes have in common
define specific granules
granules that determine the function of the mature granulocytes
define pyknosis
process of cell death that causes segment breakage and loss of chromatin pattern
the only cell that is called a PMN (polymorphonuclear) even though two others have this same quality
neutrophils
the most numerous WBC in circulation in dogs, cats, horses
neutrophils
the presence of a hypersegmented neutrophil in a blood smear can indicate which two things?
1. a pathological condition
2. the smear was made from old blood
neutrophils are pseudopods
true
neutrophilia
a higher than normal count of neutrophils in a blood sample
leukocytosis
increased number of WBCs in a blood sample
two indicators of infections in the body
combined neutrophilia and leukocytosis
buffy coat
the white/yellow "coat" in a hematocrit tube
neutropenia
a condition where neutrophils are used up faster than the bone marrow can produce them
leukocytopenia
decrease in total WBC
two indicators that the body is losing its battle against invading microorganisms
neutropenia and leukocytopenia