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34 Cards in this Set

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What is a dalton?
A unit of measurement for the mass of protons and neutrons.
What does the atomic number tell the number of in an atom?
Protons and electrons.
What does the mass number indicate the quantity of?
The sum of protons and neutrons.
All atoms of a given element have the same number of which of the following: Electrons, protons, or neutrons?
Protons.
Where is almost all of an atom's weight concentrated?
In its nucleus.
What does the nucleus of an atom contain?
Protons and neutrons.
Which parts of an atom are charged?
Protons are positively charged, electrons are negatively charged. Neutrons do not carry a charge.
What is an atomic form referred to as when it has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons?
An isotope.
What does it mean if an isotope is stable?
It does not have a tendency to lose particles.
What are the qualities of a radioactive isotope?
The nucleus of an atom decays and will eventually turn into another element if it loses protons.
Does the outter most shell of an electron have more or less potential energy?
More potential energy.
What is an example of something that can give electons more potential energy?
Light energy.
What is an example of something that can take away the potential energy of electons?
The release of heat.
Does the inner most shell of an electron have more or less potential energy?
Less potential energy.
What is the maximum number of electons that can occupy an orbital?
Two.
How many electrons can the inner most energy shell of an atom contain?
Two.
How many electrons can energy shells (other than the inner most energy shell) of an atom contain?
Eight.
Where are valence electons in an atom located?
They are the electrons in the outter most energy shell.
What is the name for elements required by organisms in minute quantities only?
Trace elements.
What is the outter most energy shell of an atom called?
The Valence shell.
What are the 11 natually occuring elements in the human body?
Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfer, Sodium, Chlorine, Magnesium.
How much of human body weight is composed of the oxygen element?
65%
How much of human body weight is composed of the carbon element?
18.5%
How much of human body weight is composed of the hydrogen element?
9.5%
How much of human body weight is composed of the nitrogen element?
3.3%
What is the term for a substance consisting of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio?
A compound.
What is the term for a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by a chemical reaction?
An element.
What type of cells do bacteria have?
Prokaryotic cells.
What is one distinguishing facor between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic cells have organelles.
Ionic compounds are also known as what?
Salts.
What is an ion?
A charged atom resulting from an electron transfer between two atoms.
What is an anion?
A negatively charged atom resulting from an electron transfer between two atoms.
What is a cation?
A positively charged atom resulting from an electron transfer between two atoms.
An ion is positively charged when it is missing what?
An electron.