Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/78

Click to flip

78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Central Nervous System consists of ______ and ______ _______?
Brain; Spinal cord
A bundle of communicating neurons in the CNS is called?
Fasciculus or tract
A bundle of communicating neurons in the PNS are called?
Nerves
The Cerebrum consists of?
2 hemispheres and 4 lobes
What connects the 2 hemispheres of the Cerebrum?
Corpus collosum
This consists of neuronal bodies, is non-myelinated, and does the work of the brain.
Cerebral Cortex
What are the convolutions of gray matter?
Gyrus (gyri)
What are the grooves separating the Gyri?
Fissures
What are the names for the 4 lobes of the Cerebrum?
Frontal, Temporal, Prietal, Occipital.
What does the Pyramidal Nervous System consist of & what does it do?
It is the motor cortex of the Frontal lobe & it controls voluntary activity.
What lies outside the Pyramidal Nervous System?
The Extrapyramidal System.
What is the function of the Premotor area?
Movement patterns & prevents lower neurons from over-reacting to stimuli.
Movement problems associated with psychotropic medications arise from where?
Premotor Cortex & Extrapyramidal System.
Prefrontal area functions?
Thought, goal-oriented behavior, and inhibition.
Frontal poles are what?
The seat of personality
What is the seat of auditory reception?
Temporal Lobe
What is the primary sensory association area?
Parietal Lobe
Aphasias are caused by damage to which lobe?
Temporal Lobe
The Diencephalon consists of the _____ and the _____.
Thalamus; Hypothalamus
What is the major relay for sensory input?
Thalamus
What maintains homeostasis, controls the PNS, and controls pituitary functions?
Hypothalamus
The Limbic System functions are?
Feeding, fighting, fleeing, & fornication.
What does the Olfactory do?
Odor detection, feeding, and feeling pleasure.
What is the strongest sense?
The Olfactory (sense of smell)
The fight-or-flight mechanism is induced by what?
The Amygdala, hypothalamus, and the midbrain.
Memory is controlled by what areas?
The Amygdala and Hippocampus.
Where is the Midbrain located?
Part of the Brainstem, behind the cortex.
Amnesia is related to what areas of the brain?
The Amygdala and Hippocampus.
The substantia nigra produces what?
Dopamine.
What is the link between the Midbrain and the Medulla?
The Pons.
What is the seat of auditory reception?
Temporal Lobe
What is the primary sensory association area?
Parietal Lobe
Aphasias are caused by damage to which lobe?
Temporal Lobe
The Diencephalon consists of the _____ and the _____.
Thalamus; Hypothalamus
What is the major relay for sensory input?
Thalamus
What maintains homeostasis, controls the PNS, and controls pituitary functions?
Hypothalamus
The Limbic System functions are?
Feeding, fighting, fleeing, & fornication.
What does the Olfactory do?
Odor detection, feeding, and feeling pleasure.
What is the strongest sense?
The Olfactory (sense of smell)
The fight-or-flight mechanism is induced by what?
The Amygdala, hypothalamus, and the midbrain.
Memory is controlled by what areas?
The Amygdala and Hippocampus.
Where is the Midbrain located?
Part of the Brainstem, behind the cortex.
Amnesia is related to what areas of the brain?
The Amygdala and Hippocampus.
The substantia nigra produces what?
Dopamine.
What is the link between the Midbrain and the Medulla?
The Pons.
What is the Medulla oblongata responsible for?
Resp, BP, partial regulation of HR, vomiting, and swallowing.
What is responsible for contralateral impairment in strokes?
Crossover of lateral corticospinal motor tracts at the lower end of the Medulla-Oblongata.
What processess sensory input and sends it to the Thalamus and Hypothalamus?
The Reticular Formation.
What are the functions of the Cerebellum?
Coordinates fine motor movements, maintains equalibrium, but does NOT initiate motor movement.
Neurons consist of what?
Cell body, dendrites, and axons.
Dendrites have what function?
To receive impulses.
Axons have what function?
To carry impulses away to the next neuron.
The brain floats in _______mL of CSF.
140
Enlarged ventricles are associated with what?
The obstruction of outlet to spinal column, overproduction of CSF, brain atrophy (Alzheimer's), and neurodevelopmental problems(Schizophrenia).
Where are the Neurotransmitters found?
In all Presynaptic and Postsynaptic (pParasympathetic) nerve terminals.
What is the function of Neurotransmitters?
Coordination and movement; sleep and arousal; pain perception, and memory acquisition and retention.
What is the main transmitter for the Parasympathetic Nervous System?
Acetylcholine (ACh).
Increased levels of ______ are found in mania, anxiety, and some schizophrenia.
Norepinephrine.
Where is Norepinephrine found?
In the ANS and CNS.
What are the functions of Norepinephrine?
Sleep, cognition, perception, cardiovascular function, and locomotion.
This Neurotransmitter is derived from Tyrosine.
Dopmine.
What are the functions of Dopamine?
Movement and coordination, emotions, and decision-making ability.
_______is decreased in Parkinson's and depression, but increased in mania and some ttpes of schizophrenia.
Dopamine.
This Neurotransmitter is derived from Tyrosine.
Dopmine.
What are the functions of Dopamine?
Movement and coordination, emotions, and decision-making ability.
_______is decreased in Parkinson's and depression, but increased in mania and some ttpes of schizophrenia.
Dopamine.
Neurotransmitters that cause inhibitory effects.
GABA, Glycine, Serotonin, Dopamine, Acetylcholine, Enkephalins, & Endorphins.
Neurotransmitters that cause excitatory effects.
Glutamate, Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Acetylcholine, Substance P, & Aspartate
Interrupts the progression of electrical impulses at the synaptic junction.
GABA
Thought to inhibit some reflexes.
Glycine
Involved in relay of sensory info & regulation of some reflexes.
Glutamate & Aspartate
What are the 3 neuropeptides?
Enkephalins, Endorphins, & Substance P
Substance P regulates what?
Pain
What inhibits the release of NE & inhibits the effects of serotonin?
Somatostatin
Somatostatin stimulates the release of what?
Dopamine & Acetylcholine
The Autonomic Nervous System consists of what?
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
Parasympathetic _________ energy
Conserves
Sympathetic _________ energy
Expends