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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the five basal ganglia and there subsequent subdivisions?
caudate nu, putamen, globus pallidus, amygdala, and claustrum. The lentiform nu consists of the globus pallidus and putamen, the striatum contains the caudate nu and putamen, and the corpus striatum includes the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus
what is the blood supply of the corpus striatum? subthalamus? substantia nigra?
medial and lateral striate, posteromedial, posteromedial and posterolateral and ant choroidal
what is the tract for the basal ganglia motor system?
substantia nigra to the striatum to the globus pallidus to the dorsal thalamus to the motor and premotor cortex
what is the tract for the limbic system of the basal ganglia?
ventral tegmental area to the ventral striatum (nu accumbens) to the dorsal thalamus to the frontal and limbic cortex.
what will cause parkinsons? schizophrenia?
decreased nigrostriatal dopamine (from substantia nigra to the striatum), increased mesolimbic dopamine (from ventral tegmental area of midbrain to the ventral striatum) OR decreased mesocortical dopamine (from midbrain ventral tegmental area to the frontal or limbic cortex)
what are the functions of the motor system of the basal ganglia? the limbic system?
planning, initation, facilitation, and suppression of movement. Mood, motivation and behavior
in the motor part of the basal ganglia, what areas influence the striatum? the globus pallidus?
all areas of the cerebral cortex connect to the striatum while the subthalamus also has input from the globus pallidus
what nuclei in the dorsal thalamus does the motor system of the basal ganglia synapse?
VL and VA
what are all the connections in the motor system of the basal ganglia?
corticostriatal, striatopallidal, pallidosubthalamic, subthalamopallidal, pallidothalamic, thalamocortical, nigrostriatal, raphestriatal, striatonigral, nigrothalamic, and thalamostriatal.
glutamate is the NT used for what connections in the motor system of basal ganglia?
thalamocortical, corticostriatal, and subthalamopallidal
GABA is the NT used for what connections in the motor system of basal ganglia?
striatopallidal and pallidothalamic
dopamine is the NT used for what connections in the motor system of basal ganglia?
nigrostriatal (note there are two synapse types, an inhibitory and an excitatory receptor type)
serotonin is the NT used for what connections in the motor system of basal ganglia?
the raphestriatal
Ach is the NT used for what connections in the motor system of basal ganglia?
the striatal interneuron between the corticostriatal and the striatopallidal
suppression of movement in the basal ganglia movement system is mediated via what areas? faciliatation of movement?
striatum and subthalamus. striatum and the substantia nigra
function of the input to the striatum from the cortex?
planning and initation of movement via glutamate
the striatal interneuron function is?
sporadically active and uses Ach to modulate and suppress DA activity
describe the function of DA and the striatal output.
DA from the substantia nigra will always facilitate movement via striatal output, but it uses two different DA receptors and thus 2 pathways. The indirect pathway has inhibitory DA receptors that inhibit the GABAergic striatopallidic neurons thus allowing the GABAergic pallidosubthalamic neurons to fire and thus inhibit the glutamatergic subthalamopalladic neurons preventing the GABAergic pallidothalamics from firing thus allowing movement (without DA these neurons are excited to fire thus inhibiting movement). The direct pathway has excitatory DA receptors that stimulates
GABAergic striatopallidic neurons that inhibit the GABAergic pallidothalamic thus allowing movement.
the output of the thalmocortical fibers is to do what?
allow movement via glutamate.
what is dyskinesia? hypokinesia? akinesia? bradykinesia? hyperkinesia?
involuntary movement disorders. decrease in movement and increase in tone. absence of movement (impaired initiation or cesation of movements). Reduced velocity and amplitude of movement. increased movement and decreased tone.
all unilateral basal ganglia have symptoms on what side of the body?
the contralateral side.
hypokinesia occurs when what NT's are imbalanced? hyperkinesia?
DA < GABA + Ach.
DA > GABA + Ach
what is an athetoid movement? choreiform? ballistic? dystonia? akathisia? myoclonus?
slow, twisting movements of distal muscles. brisk, fast and dancelike movements. flailing and fast crazy movements. sustained or repetive muscular contraction or cramping often resulting in joint distortions. movement acted out by an inner feeling for the need to move (often induced by antipsychotic medications). lightning like intermittent muscle jerks of unknown origin.
what two involuntary movements from the basal ganglia disorders can be suppressed.
tic and akathisia
what are the symptoms of parkinsons?
akinesia, bradykinesia, festination (accleration of gait), resting tremor, rigidity (both plastic and cogwheel), impaired postural (vestibular) reflexes as well as cognitive and emotionl disorders.
the lesion location for parkinsons is where? what is reduced?
substantia nigra and loss of dopaminergic cells
what are the etiologies of parkinsons?
idiopathic (genetic) plus environmental factors. Secondary etiology maybe from certain chemicals like CO, cyanide, tetrohydropyridines. Trauma and stroke have also been shown to cause parkinson symptoms
what are the five stages of parkinsons?
unilateral, bilateral with shuffling gate, postural reflex impaired, postural reflexes are poor (falls down), chair or bedridden
the classic reaction to L dopa treatment for parkinsons is what?
the on-off reaction; movement is in spurts of on when dopamine is high then to off when it is low.
what are the sign and symptoms of huntington's chorea?
choreoform and/or choreoathetoid movements throughout the body, hyperkinesia, hypotonia, dementia
what is the etiology of huntington's chorea?
AD mutation
what is the major target of huntington's?
the indirect pathway thus less GABA and more DA ratio
what are the signs and symptoms of hemiballismus?
ballistic movements in proximal musculature in one or both contralateral extremities, a hyperkinesia
what is the etiology of hemiballismus?
occlusion of posteromedial central artery resulting in a lesion of the subthalamus. Thus less GABA and more DA ratio
what is the lesion location of dystonic contractures?
it varies, but it is usually seen in late stages of some basal ganglia disorders like parkinsons and cerebral palsy.
what are characteristcs of tardive dyskinesia?
seen in some schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotics (increase sensitivity to DA). Choreoathetoid movements simillar to Huntingtons.
what are the characteristics of cerebral palsy?
due to hypoxic or ischemic events inutero resulting in a variety of motor system impairments.
what are the characteristics of Gilles La Tourette syndrome?
usually affects young males and characterized by multiple tics and rarely involuntary vocalization of emotionally sparked remarks (corporalea). shows the close association between the limbic and motor systems. Usually have ADHD and OCD.
Characteristics of OCD?
cannot supppress the repeated execution of a motor task. May have to do with serotonin bc SSRI's help out. Along with tics and sydenham's chorea, has been associated with strepptococcus A infections and thus maybe the result of an autoimmune cross-reaction process.