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30 Cards in this Set

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A characteristic of flour to take up and retain (hold) water or liquids. It is determined by measuring the amount of liquid needed to make dough of the desired consistency. It is expressed in a percentage—lbs. /liters of water needed per pound/kilo of flour.
pH of less than 7. Acid ingredients react with bases to form salts and water. They have a sour taste. A chemical compound that yields hydrogen ions when in solution.
pH greater than 7. Alkalis such as baking soda (bicarbonate of soda) Neutralizes acids and reacts with acidic ingredients as a leavener. Alkalis have an excess of hydroxyl ions when in solution.
all-purpose flour
Wheat flour milled from hard wheat or a blend of soft and hard wheat. Used in homes for some yeast breads, quick breads, cakes, cookies, pastries and noodles. All-purpose flour may be bleached or unbleached. Both may be enriched with four vitamins (niacin, riboflavin, folic acid, and thiamin) and iron. All-purpose flour may be used in a wide variety of home baked goods, such as cookies, quick breads, and some yeast breads.
At altitude (above 3,000 ft.), adjustments may be needed in baking and cooking time, temperature and recipes. For example:

Water boils at 212°F. below 2,000 ft. and more quickly from 3,000 to 10,000 ft. (208° to194°F).
Food requiring boiling (pasta, eggs, pudding/pie filling) will take longer to cook.
Yeast breads rise faster—use slightly cooler liquids to slow fermentation; punch down twice.
Flour will be dryer and more absorbent—use slightly less.
Cakes may need slightly less baking powder (? to ¼ tsp), less sugar (1 to 3 tbsp per cup) and a little more liquid (1 to 4 tbsp. per cup).
Egg whites: beat only to soft peaks, not stiff.
amaranth flour
Milled from amaranth seeds, it combines well with other flours for smooth-textured quick breads. It has an assertive flavor and especially complements savory breads or pastries. Its lack of gluten means it must be combined with wheat flour in yeast breads. 
baker's percent
In baking formulas primarily based on flour, each ingredient’s weight is a measured as a percentage of the total flour weight. (100 percent)
Cooking food in dry heat, especially in an oven
baking pan
Available in a variety of shapes and sizes for baking specific cakes, cookies, biscuits, breads, pies, and specialty goods. Most pans sold today are made from light- to heavy-gauge steel, except for two-layer, insulated baking pans, which are heavy-gauge aluminum. Most test kitchens use mid-gauge aluminum pans to formulate standards for baking time, temperature, and even baking/browning. Also, see Cookie pans, Jelly roll, Baking sheet, Nonstick, and Insulated glossary listings.
baking soda
sodiumsodium bicarbonate (2 NAHCO3) Reacts in baking, but is alkaline and needs the acidity from other ingredients (such as honey, molasses, cocoa, sour or butter milk) to react and release CO2.
baking stone
Quarry tile (unglazed clay) or rectangular stoneware placed in the oven—allow 2-3 inches space between stone and oven walls on all sides for air flow; preheat stones, bake directly on the stone.
Long loaf (thicker and stubbier than a baguette)
One recipe of a dough or batter, such as bread or cookies.
Thin mixture of flour and water that can be poured or spooned into pan or on a griddle.
To agitate one or more ingredients rapidly using a brisk up-and-over motion to add air into a mixture using a spoon, whisk, rotary beaters or electric mixer.
bench proofing
Period of time dough rests after dividing and Rounding the dough, allowing the dough to recover and relax for molding. Average length of bench proof=10 to 20 minutes. Dough should be protected from drafts and to prevent crusting
Italian pre-ferment,
To thicken or smooth out the consistency of a liquid.
To combine two or more ingredients thoroughly until they seem to be one.
To cook in liquid that is heated until bubbles rise to the surface and break. Bubbles form throughout the mixture. Temperature: 212˚ F. or 100˚C.
boule (miche)
Round loaf; taut skin stretched perfectly over a dome of bread dough, sealed on the bottom.
Baked foods produced from dough made of flour, water, salt and other optional ingredients, and leavened by yeast or other leavening agents.
bread flour
Flour milled from hard wheat, in excess of 11% protein. Most often used for yeast leavened products.
bread scoring
Evaluation of finished baked product to determine quality. 2. Slashing the surface (top) of loaves to allow for expansion as the loaf is baked.
The rough portion of the bread crust formed during oven spring between the pan’s edge and the curve of the loaf’s top. Break may occur on both sides or one side only.
To give a cooked surface to a food (such as meat or flour) by applying high heat. Also occurs during baking and roasting.
When yeast loaves are under proofed and the interior pushes up the top crust leaving a rough, sharp edge along the side of the loaf having the appearance of a “cap.”
To heat sugar until brown and a characteristic flavor develops; occurs at 300˚F.
cereal grain
Cereal refers to grain and foods derived from them; cereal is from Ceres, a pre-Roman goddess of agriculture.
chemical leavening
Used in baking in batters or dough to produce carbon dioxide. Common chemical leaveners are baking soda, baking powders, cream of tartar.

Food History note: Chemical leaveners were not available until the early 1800s (baking soda) and 1860s (baking powder).