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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the normal flora in the female urogen spec?
Coag neg staphs
Strep viridans
Saprophytic Neisserias
Commensal Mycobacteria
What are the normal flora in the male urogen spec?
normal skin flora
How are specimens collected from urogenital?
Sterile swab
What is vital when collecting a spec for viral STD?
-COTTON or DACRON swab - other kills herpes simplex.
-Use viral transport media
what is a viral transport media?
Hanks balanced salt solution
What is Sucrose buffer with antibiotics used for?
-collecting a specimen for Chlamydia or Mycoplasma
What type of media for GC?
-culture media
-Modified Stuart's or Amies charcoal for SWABS
-JEMBEC/MTM for culture
What shoud be done with urogenital specimens on arrival?
-Prompt setup
-DON'T refrigerate swabs
List 9 pathogenic agents in urogenital specs from A-M
1. Bacterial vaginosis (G. vaginalis and Mobiluncus)
2. Calymmatobacterium inguinale
3. Chlamydia trachomatis
4. Haemophilus ducreyi
5. Herpes simplex virus
6. Human papillomavirus
7. Listeria monocytogenes
8. Molluscum contagiosum
9. Mycoplasma hominis
List the 7 pathogenic agents in urogenital specs from N-Z
1. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
2. Phthirus pubis
3. Staph aureus TSS
4. Treponema pallidum
5. Trichomonas vaginalis
6. Ureaplasma urealyticum
7. Yeast - C. albicans
What bacterial agents are often found in gay males?
Intestinal bacteria - Shigella, Salmonella, Campylo, Cryptosporidium..
What is the most common cause of neonatal meningitis?
Strep B
What are the 3 vaginal infections with discharge?
1. Trichomonas vaginalis
2. Bacterial Vaginosis
3. Yeast vaginitis
What are the 5 STDs with genital ulcers?
1. Herpes simplex
2. Syphils
3. Chancroid
4. Calymmatobacterium inguinale
5. Chlamydia trachomatis
What are the 2 STDs that exhibit genital growths?
1. HPV- papilloma virus
2. Molluscum contagiosum
What are the 2 STDs w/ PID, urethritis, or cervicitis?
1. Chlamydia trachomatis
2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
What can "infest" the urogenital region?
Phthirus pubis
List the 4 "miscellaneous" urogenital pathogens:
1. Mycoplasma/ureaplasma
2. Staph aureus
3. Neisseria meningitis/ enteric pathogens.
4. Strep group B/Listeria
Why is bacterial vaginosis called "osis" inst of "alis"?
Because no WBCs respond
What are the agents that are associated with bacterial vaginosis?
-Gardnerella vaginalis
How is it clinically diagnosed?
-Gray/white sticky discharge
-Vaginal pH is >4.5
-Clue cells
-Fishy odor w/ KOH
How is bacterial vaginosis diagnosed in the lab?
-Culture not recommended
-Direct smear shows low amts of lactobacillus, clue cells, few WBCs.
-VPIII test affirms
What are some complications of Bacterial vaginosis?
post op infections
cervical dysplasia
preterm births
post delivery problems
fetal development problems
What is the most common cause of vaginitis?
Yeast vaginitis - usually from C. albicans
Is yeast vaginitis an infection?
No, it's endogenous from normal flora
What causes chancroid?
haemophilus ducreyi
What does alymmatobacterium inguinale cause?
an STD exhibiting ulcers;
-Aka Granuloma inguinale
-Aka Donovanosis
Where is donovanosis usually seen?
in the tropics
How is donovanosis diagnosed?
-Scraping of lesions
-Observe donovan bodies
What are Donovan bodies?
Mononuclear cells w/ intracellular bacteria
What is the specimen of choice for isolating Chlamydia trachomatis? Why?
-Bubo aspirate
-Because bubos are a symptom of this infection
-To make sure it's not Plague
Seeing intracellular bacteria on a male urethral smear would make you suspect:
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
What are the normal flora in the throat?
-S. viridans
-Saprophytic neisseria
-coag neg Staphs
What are the disease states that occur in the oropharynx/throat?
1. Pharyngitis
2. Laryngitis
3. Epiglottitis
4. Whooping cough
What causes pharyngitis?
1. Strep group A
2. other beta Streps
3. neisseria gonorrhoeae
4. arcanobacterium hemolyticum
5. Corynebacterium diphtheria
What causes pharyngitis in young adults?
arcanobacterium hemolyticum
what usually causes laryngitis?
viral infections
what causes whooping cough?
bordatella pertussis
what does corynebacterium diphtheria cause?
a pharyngeal membrane
What type of white cell response is seen in diphtheria?
what type of media and swab are used for bordatella pertussis?
-Nasopharyngeal swab
-Regan lowe, Bordet gengout
what causes epiglottitis?
Haemophilus influenzae
What's the normal nasal flora?
what are the usual pathogens in the nose?
-Haemophilus influenzae
-Strep pneumo
-Strep A/M. catarrhalis (less)
What are the 2 common disease states in the nose?
1. Rhinitis - viral/allergic
2. Sinusitis - bacterial
How are specimens processed for the nose?
1. Sinus aspirate
2. Serum IgG RIA
3. Skin tests
What usually causes:
-Otitis externa
-Otitis media
Externa = p. aeruginosa
Media = Sinusitis pathogens (h. influenzae, strep pneumo)
What are the 3 disease states in the mouth?
1. Lumpy Jaw
2. Thrush
3. Vincent's angina
What causes lumpy jaw?
Actinomyces israelii
What causes Vincent's angina?
Fusobacterium + Borellia
What causes bacterial parotitis?
1. Staph aureus
2. Strep viridans
3. Anaerobes
What does the isolation of Neisseria meningitidis in a nasal specimenindicate?
Carrier state of the bug
What plate should be swabbed for carrier state testing?
What's normal flora in the lower spiratory tract?
what is the pneumonia mechanism?
1. Organism gets into alveoli
2. Inflammation - fluid/wbcs
3. Junk consolidates/bad xchange
4. Fever, chest pain, cough
What usually causes community acquired pneumonia in:
-Viral - RSV/Parainfluenzae
-Bactrial - S. pneumo/H. influenzae/M. catarrhalis
-Strep pneumo, H. influenzae, Staph aureus.
What usually causes nosocomial pneumonia?
-Enterobacteriacae: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, E. coli, Serratia, Pseudomonas.
How does nosocomial pneumonia develop?
from oral colonizatoin of bacteria and barrier compromise.
What are 5 mechanisms of pneumonia other than community and nosocomial acquired?
1. Viral destruction of cilia
2. Chemicals
3. Tracheostomy
4. Underlying disease
5. Hematogenous spread
What causes aspiration pneumonia, and how does it differ from other?
-Aspiration of food/stomach or oral contents or medicine.
-Involves upper Resp tract organisms in lower right lobe.
-Will see WBC response but culture shows NORMALFLORA
What's the choice specimen for aspiration pneumonia?
What type of lab workup should be done?
-Transtracheal aspirate

-Do a ANAEROBE workup
What 3 anaerobes commonly cause aspirate pneumonia?
What 2 disease states occur in lungs other than pneumonia?
1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
2. Bronchitis/Bronchiolitis
What type of sputum is mostly collected for pneumonia?
Sputum - rinse w/ water, cough deeply, don't spit.
What type of specimens are used for collecting lower resp tract?
1. transtracheal aspirate
2. Aspiration (thoracentesis)
3. Blood culture
4. Lung puncture
How should a tuberculosis specimen be cared for?
Very carefully!
-3 first morning specimens
-Acid fast stain immediately
-Culture for 8 weeks
-Molecular testing
What is an acceptable sputum?
What is a rejectable sputum?
Accept: >25 PMNs : <10 epis/lpf
Reject: >25 epis/lpf