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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
predominant microorganisms in mouth and the most common cause of subacute bacterial endocarditis
streptococcus viridans
what are the two types of tissue which streptococcus is highly adherent
dental tissue (plaques) and cardiac valves (causing endocarditis)
streptocci thrive on sugar and turn sucrose into what (which is an important ingrediant in plaque
polysaccharide (a byproduct of sugar metabolism is lactic acid which hastens dental caries
what is the next most common bacteria next to strep in the mouth?
Neisseria (not meningitis)
Diphtheroids which are normal in the body are gram positive rods are are the most common contaminant in blood cultures because
they also colonize the skin
the two most common contaminants of blood cultures (in the presence of foreign bodies - catheters, intravascular artificial devise - they may be pathogens
Staph epidermis and diphtheroids
Gram positive cocci, round and in grape-like clusters in oral flora - one of the most common contaminants of blood
Staph epidermis
a facultative Gram negative rod, is part of the normal oral flora. It causes skin and soft tissue infections associated with human bites and clenched-fist injuries
Eikenella corrodens
Fusobacterium, Provotella, Anaerobic strep are common anaerobes in what part of the body
a common oral anaerobe which is a cigar-shaped Gram negative rod - penicillan sensitive
what bacteria is found in the lower trachea
none - it is virtually bacteria free
Pneumonia caused by aspiration of own oral secretion like during loss of consciousness, offending pathogens usually due to a mixture of normal mouth flora (aerobes and anaerobes
aspiration pneumonia
NTF means
normal throat flora
are NTF bacteria sensitive to penicillan
gastric achlorhydria
no stomach acid - leads to proliferation of bacteria
what kind of bacteria do you find in the upper small intestine in normal individual
fasting - its mostly sterile. if there is anything (like after a meal) you would see gram postive aerobes and few anaerobes
E. coli, enterbacter, and other Gram neg organism found in the terminal ileum are called
B. Fragilis is normally found
lower intestin and resistant to penicillan
how much bacteria is in the large intestine and consequently the feces
1/4 to 1/3 weight of feces (bacteria growth is do stasis)
Bacteriodes which are Gram negative anaerobic rods, non-spore forming, lots in feces, generate what in the colon?
ammonia, acid, and gas
know this
how is ammonia formed by bacteria
splitting urea and forming proteins
common cause of intraabdominal infections in trauma or bowel rupture - infections due to mixed flora - anaerobic.
Bacteroides fragilis
what three antibiotics should you use for infections below the diaphram
clindamycin, cefoxitin (cephalosporin), and metronidazole
what class of antibiotics are useful in combination for treating aeirobic gram negative rods - intraabdominal infections frequently with mixed flora
gram-positive rod which produces lactic acid and helps maintain low intestinal pH
the two types of aerobic flora in the gut
coliforms (enteric gram negative rods) and enterococcus (fecalis and faecium)h
how would coliforms or enterococcus end up in the urinary tract in females
contamination of the vagina and subsequent urinary tract with fecal flora
what are the two gases produced by anaerobic flora in feces
methane and hydrogen
what are three important factors which may determine bacteria situation
redox potential, pH, and flow
intestinal flora of breast fed infants consist largely of

Gram + rod - not usually pathogenic
The two most important factors in maintenance of intestinal floraand the ability of any pathogen or non-pathogen to proliferate and persist will depend on
1. redox potential (low o2 level and pH
2. synergistic or antagonistic effect of competing microbes.
how do aerobes aid anaerobic growth
aerobes provide reducing conditions for anaerobes
what vitimin is produced by bacteria which might be utilized by other bacteria
the low pH which helps maintain the local flora results from
intestinal flora which ferments carbohydrates and drops pH
in a hepatic coma, treatment is aimed at reducing the normal intestinal flora why?
liver function is impaired. blood ammonia level carn rise.
the predominant normal flora of the skin
staph epidermis
found in skin and nares, oportunisitic pathogen
s. aureus (35%)
vaginal flora of an adult women responsible for acidic pH. suppression leads to candida albicans overgrowth
lactobacillus (not dominant before puberty and after menopause
15-20% of women of childbearing age carry what in their vagina. it is the organism is an important of septsis for the newborn acquired during passage through the birth canal
Group B streptococci
following dental trauma - actinomyces might cause what kind of infection
oral facial infection
following aspiration related trauma - you might see what kind of infection with actinomyces
thoracic infection
following intestinal rupture - you might see what kind of infection by actinomyces
abdominal infection
sulfer granules seen in tissues
3 anaerobic pleuropulmonary infection syndromes
1. aspiration pneumonia
2. lung abscess
3. empyema
bacterial normal flora serve a nutritional function by producing
vit K and B12
what might lead to vitimin B 12 deficiency
bacterial outgrowth in the small bowerl leads to fat malabsorption
how do neisseria species which are natural flora of the mouth differ from Neisseria meningitidis in terms of where they colonize
N. meningitis colonizes the throat or nasopharynx
upon hospitalization (especially incombination with given antibiotics what two aerobic gram-neg rods may colonize oral cavity
E.Coli and Klebsiella
where might you find clostridium perfringesn as normal flora
the predominant "aerobic"flora
Coliforms and Enterococcus

can cause UTIs
what bacteria are in fetal intestine
how might abnormal bacterial overgrowth in the upper small intestine cause fat malabsorbtion
bacteria cause bile acid deconjugation
what three species do you find in the throat
viridan streptococcus, neisseria, and S. epidermidis