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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The family Bacillacea is known for producing what
Endospores. It includes Bacillus and Clostridia
What two Bacillus species can cause disease
Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis
What diseases does Bacillus cereus cause
Food poisoning (emetic from toxin or diarrheal for the organism); Ocular infections; Intravenous catheter-related sepsis
What forms of disease does Bacillus anthracis cause
Cutaneous (most common); gastrointestinal (rare); inhalational (Woolsorter's and intentional). Spores are the infectious form
What is the definition of Bacillus anthracis
Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores. Humans become infected as they come in contact with infected animals or their products
What are two historical names for anthrax
Black bane and malignant pustule
What are some basic characteristics of anthrax
Facultatively anaerobic, large spore-forming, gram positive rod. Virulent strains produce anti-phagocytic poly D-glutamic acid capsule and a toxin
What are the characteristics of the anthrax toxin
It is made up of three seperate proteins
Edema factor (EF) is a bacterial adenylate cyclase
Lethal factor (LF) inhibits the MAPK signal transduction pathway in target macrophages
Protective antigen (PA) is a tissue binding component
What is the pathogenesis of cutaneous anthrax
Spores enter skin through injury, germinate, and form black, necrotic central eschars. Edema is striking. Can lead to septicemia. 95% of human cases
What can inhalational anthrax lead to
Hemorrhagic mediastinitis
What is the ultimate reservoir for Bacillus anthracis
What are the clinical manifestations of Cutaneous anthrax
Malignant pustule. Papule leads to central necrosis which leads to a black eschar. Characterized by painlessness, edema, and possibly systemic symptoms. There is complete resolution in 80-90% of cases
What is characteristic of the terminal phase of inhalational anthrax
Cyanosis, increased chest pain and chest wall edema, followed by shock and death within 24-48 hours. Also hemorrhagic mediastinitis