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14 Cards in this Set

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What is meant by the host range
Only a few of the microbial species that exist in nature are found in association with humans
What is dynamic interaction
The interaction of microorganism with human or other animal host is determined by the characteristics of the microbe and those of the host and it changes over time
What is infection
The process whereby a microbe enters into a relationship with a host. It may or may not cause disease
What is pathogenicity
Ability to cause disease. Frank (strict) pathogens readily cause disease in normal host. Opportunistic pathogens do not produce disease in their normal setting
What is virulence
Degree of pathogenicity
Where are the normally sterile sites
Blood; Body fluids; Tissues; Lower respiratory tract; Stomach
What is the physiologic importance of normal flora
Organisms in the normal flora may aid the host, harm the host, or be commensals
What must be assumed of specimens collected from areas that have an abundant normal flora
They are contaminated
What are probiotics
A live microbial food ingredient that, when ingested in sufficient quantities, exerts health benefits on the host beyond basic nutrition
What are Koch's 4 postulates for a pathogen
1. Organism should be found in all patients with the disease
2. Organism should be isolated and grown outside the body
3. Administration of the organism to an animal will cause sickness
4. The specific organism should be reisolated
What are the elements of a successful pathogen
Contact and Entry; Establishment (colonization); Survival; Dissemination; Pathology--Damage the host; Balanced pathogenicity (equilibrium between parasitic growth and host damage)
What is a characteristic of viral genes
They are generally grouped together
What factors influence colonization
Epithelial barriers; Flushing action (ciliary activity, peristatic action, urine flow); Hostile environment on the surface; Normal flora
What is the definition of infectious diseases
Infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased within the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future