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18 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is the general structure for penicillin
5 member thiazolidine ring joined by B-lactam ring which is attached to a side chain
How does penicillin work
inhibition of the last step of cell wall synthesis

transpeptidation rxn results in cross-linking of adj peptidoglycan strands
mechanism for penicillin
B-lactam binds to protein preventing polymerization

Releases lysin to degrade previous peptidoglycan

Splitting of B-lactam results in INACTIVE product
what is structure of cephalosporins
6-member dihydrothiazine ring joined to B-lactam ring
What is the difference between penicillin and cephalosporin
cephalosporin: 6 member ring, more resilient to B-lactamase
B-lactamase inhibitors

example of...
expand the spectrum of B-lactam antibiotics

example: clavulanic acid
how does glycopeptide antibiotics work

example of...
inhibit the use of lipid-linked cell wall intermediates in the assembly of linear PG molecules

Used for multi-resistant organisms

Vancomycin
bacitracin is used on what wall type

how does it work
Gram Pos.

targets lipid carrier responsible for moving PG precursors through cytoplasmic membrane to cell wall
polymyxin is used on what wall type

how does it work
Gram Neg.

FA bind to hydrophobic portion of the OUTER membrane.

interacts with LPS and phospholipids...INCREASE CELL PERMEABILITY
What are the antibiotics that target the cell wall??
penicillin
cephalosporin
b-lactamase
glycopeptide antibodies
bacitracin (gram pos)
polymyxin (gram neg)
what are the antibiotics that inhibit NUCLEIC ACID SYN.
quinolones
novobiocin
rifamycin
metronidazole
how does QUINOLONES work
inhibition of DNA replication

binds to DNA gyrase, prevent supercoiling

DNA gyrase: introduce negative superhelical turns into covalently circular DNA
how does novobiocin work
also inhibit DNA gyrase

bactericidal for a variety of bacteria...ESPECIALLY GRAM POS
how does metronidazole work
reduced form acts as a free radical that damages bacterial DNA.
what antibiotics inhibits PROTEIN SYN.
aminoglycosides
tetracyclins
Macrolides
clindamycin
streptogramin
how does aminoglycosides work
binds to 30S ribosomal protein

result:
misread of mRNA
premature release of ribosome from mRNA
how does tetracyclines work
binds to 30S subunits and block binding of aminoacyl-transfer RNA @ A site
how does macroclides work
binds to 50S ribosomal subunits and block polypeptide elongation.

BACTERIOSTATIC