Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/32

Click to flip

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does staph look like?
Gram +
Cocci clustered (grapes)
non-motile
Where is the most common place to find staph?
anterior nares
What is the importance of coagulase?
differentiates s. aureus from other staph
What does coagulase do?
contributes to the clotting of plasma
converts fibrinogen to fibrin
What type of metab does s. aureus have?
facultative anaerobe
Fermentation of mannitol in acid would show what in s. aureus? s. epidermidis?
S. aureus +
S. epidermidis -
Which is catalase + staph or strep?
STAPH!
What are the 3 main structures in the cell envelope of Staph?
peptidoglycan
teichoic acid
protien A
What is protien A?
major component of cell wall of staph that is covalently bound to peptidoglycan
*** binds Fc region of IgG
What is the clinical use of protein A?
used to detect Ab levels
What are some enzymes in staph aureus that help in establishing an infection?
coagulase
lipase
Hyaluronidase
staphylokinase
nuclease
Coagulase
clotting of plasma
lipase
assist in establishing coloniazation but breaking down the cell wall
Hyaluronidase
hydrolysis of HA to facilitate spreading of infection
Staphylokinase
dissolution of clots
Nuclease
unique to s. aureus!
endo-exo nuclease activity for DNA or RNA
Toxins produced by staph aureus
hemolysins
leukotoxins
enterotoxins
exfolative toxins
Leukotoxin
2 protein toxin that attacts leukocytes and macrophages
Enterotoxins
preformed - food posioning
heat stable
Toxic Shock Syndrome
Staph grows in vag normally and tampon has things to help grow... super antigen!
Enterotoxins and TSST bind
MCH II and TCR independent of antigen -> cytokines!
Exfolative toxins
2 forms: ETA ETB proteases
stim lysis of intracellular attatchment btwn cells of the epidermis
What disease does exfolative toxin cause?
scalded skin syndrome
What are 5 types of infection that staph can cause?
folliculitis
boils
impetigo
scaled skin syndrome
pneumonia
methicillin resistant s. aureus (MRSA) is due to?
mutations with in PBPs
What is used for s. aureus infections?
vancomycin
What is the main problem caused by enterococcus?
vancomycin resistance
What are the characteristics of enterococcus bacteria?
not very aggressive but hard to treat because of vancomycin resistance
What 2 gene products are needed for vancomycin resistance spread?
VanH - a reductase
VanA - a ligase
How does vancomycin resistance work?
puts a lactate on the C-term instead of a D-ala therefore vancomysin wont be able to stop cross bridging casue it wont see the d-lac
S. epidermis characteristics
coagulase negative
low virulence
hospital aquired
S. saprophyticus characteristics
coagulase negative
UTIs