Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/68

Click to flip

68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what form does Aspergillus take in a culture?
Mycelial
A ______ is a spore resulting from fragmentation of a hypha at the septum.
arthrospore
A ______ is an asexual spore usually produced at the tip or side of a hypha.
Conidium
In culture, _______ usually produces rough-walled multicellular macroconidia.
Microsporum
a comples of hyphal strands, branched, and any associated spore-bearing structures is called what?
mycelium
What are dermatopytids caused by?
Hypersensitivity reactions caused by dermatophytes
What form of dermatophyte would you obtain from sampling a dermatophytid lesion?
None, lesions do not contain the organism
What two forms of Aspergillus will be found in an infected individual?
conidia and hyphae
What fungal infection are birds highly susceptible to? It is often fatal.
Aspergillosis
What genus of fungi produce aflatoxins?
Aspergillus
What are the virulence factors of C. albicans?
organotropism

adhesions

extracellular protienases

lipase/phospholipases
Infections of mucous membranes by C. albicans is called what?
thrush
Name the three species of fungi that grow in the hyphal form at 25C and as a yeast in vivo?
Histoplasma
Blastomyces
Coccidoides
What fungi has a polysaccharide capsule, is inhibited by cyclohexamide, and requires a temp of less than 40C to grow abundantly?
Cryptococcus neoformans
Is cryptococcus saprophytic or parasitic?
Saprophytic
What state of C. neoformans is most likely to grow in the soil?
sexual, hyphal state
Why does C. neoformans like to hang out in nervous tissue so much?
It has a great ability to metabolize nitrogen containing substances of low MW which are abundant in the CNS
is C. neoformans foound intracellular or extracellular?
both
Which gender is more likely to get Blastomycosis?
ladies
Name two drugs that are effective against B. dermitidis in the yeast form.
chloramphenicol and cyclohexamide
In dogs with this disease, the lungs are most frequently infected and may become dotted with milliary lesions. What is the disease?
Blastomycosis
You have a clininc in Virginia, an owner brings his dog to you and he presents with obvious arthritic lameness and shortness of breath with a severe cough. He lives at an address which is very near to a local river. What fungal disease might this dog have?
Blastomycosis
What fungal species likes to kick it in the desert?
Coccidoides
Waht form does Coccidoides take in the environment?
mycelial
Waht three forms of Coccidoides life cycle can be found in the body of an infected individual?
arthroconidia
spherules
endospores
T/F Chloramphenicol and cyclohexamide inhibit Coccidoides growth.
false
T/F Griseofulvin is effective against most fungi.
False
This drug inhibits the growth of dermatophytes by disrupting mitotic spindle structure so normal mitosis cannot proceed.
Griseofulvin
these broad-spectrum anti-fungals bind ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane.
polyenes
are polyenes used to treat superficial or deep-seated mycoses?
Deep-seated
A dog with a chronic deep-seated fungal infection comes to your clinic in renal failure. What might you suspect this dog's infection has been treated with, just given these few facts?
Amphotericin B it is nephrotoxic
How does Flucytosine act as an anti-fungal agent?
It disrupts both DNA and RNA synthesis
What are the largest class of anti-fungals in clinical use today?
Azoles
cephalosporins are resistant to beta lactamases produced by _______, but are not resistant to those produced by some ______________.
staphylococci
gram negative rods
What is the main example of a glycopeptide?
Vancomycin
Which beta lactam interferes with cell wall growth by binding D-ala-D-ala.
vancomycin
what drug blocks alanine-alanine synthesis and what is it used in the treatment of?
Cycloserine
TB
What drug inhibits the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in bacterial cell wall synthesis? What condition is this drug used to treat?
Phosphomycin
UTI
What drug blocks phosphatase activity which inhibits cell wall synthesis? Is this drug given systemically or topically?
Bacitracin
Topically, it is toxic if given systemically.
Quinolones and Rifampin fall into what broad category of antibiotics?
Nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors.
What 2 protein synthesis inhibitors bind to the 30S ribosomal subunits and inhibit bacterial protein synthesis?
Tetracycline
Aminoglycosides
Name two antibiotics that interfere with folic acid synthesis in bacteria?
Sulfonamides
Trimethoprim
What does the antibiotic triclosan interfere with?
fatty acid biosynthesis
What are three factors that effect environmentally mediated resistance?
pH
cation concentration
preence of certian metabolites
Vancomycin is ineffective against_______ bacteria.
gram negative
what bacteria is ampicillin useless against?
Klebsiella
Cephalosporins are as useless as a screen door on a battleship against what bacteria?
Entercocci
What kind of resistance is the main reason for susceptibility testing?
Aquired resistance
Give three examples of general resistance mechanisms of bacteria.
Degredation or modification of antimicrobial agent

decreased uptake

altered antimicrobial target
Waht are the two braod types of susceptibility tests?
diffusion and dillution
what does MIC stand for.
Minimum inhibitory concentration
This type of test uses filter paper discs with antibiotics and agar plates and is measured as either Sensitive, Intermediate, or resistant. What test is this?
Diffusion test
T/F Dillution tests and diffusion tests can be used to measure MBC ( minimal bactericidal concentration)?
False, only dilution test.
What are the three mechanisms for tranferring genes from one bacterium to another?
conjugation, transduction and transformation
T/F micoplasmas are uniformly fram-negative?
true
what are the three genera of dermatophytes?
microsporum
trichophyton
epidermophyton
what fungus have hyphae that tend to nvade blood vessel walls producing inflammation and obstruction?
aspergillis
what fungus has broad-based budding?
B.dermititidis
what two stages of Blastomyces are found in the body?
conidia and blastospores
this disease is characterized by digestive disturbance, enlarged abdomen, hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy and ascites. The dog is the most commonly affected domestic animal.
Histoplasmosis
which fungus has keg shaped arthroconidia?
coccidoides
what are 2 polyenes used to treat fungal infections of the eye?
Nystatin Natamycin
what two fungi are inhibited by flucytosine?
Candida and Crypto
What drug is used to treat fungal meningitis?
flucytosine
What azole is used in treating fungal meningitis?
fluconazole
What antifungal angents inhibit chitin synthesis?
Nikkomycins
What protein synthesis inhibitor causes alterations in gut microflora usually leading to diarrhea?
tetracyclines
What are five examples of aminoglycosides?
Amikacin
Gentamicin
Kanamycin
Neomycin
Streptomycin