Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
K antigen
Glycocalyx, slime layer and capsules
H antigen
characteristic of Gram Pos
multiple layers of peptidoglycan

no periplasmic space

contains teichoic acid, lipoteichoic acid and carbohydrates

cytoplasmic membrane
what type of cell wall contains teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid

what is the function of the acid
Gram Pos.

shock and fever
what cell wall type is predominantly found on the skin
gram pos. because it can stand a higher absence of water.
characteristic of Gram Neg
bilayer membrane composed of phospholipid, protein and LPS

Most important protein is Porin

LPS in all Gram Neg

middle monolayer of peptidoglycan

periplasmic space

cytoplasmic space with NO LIPOTEICHOIC ACID
Main Difference Between Gram Neg and Gram Pos
NO periplasmic space in GRAM POS.
NO Lipoteichoic acid in GRAM NEG.
O antigen
Lipopolyaccharide (LPS)
what cell wall type contain LPS?

function of LPS
Gram Neg.

Shock and Fever
define nucleoid
single, diffuse chromosome with no nuclear membrane or histone

no physical separation from ribosome

DNA attached to plasma membrane, allowing segregation following replication
define plasmid
non-essential, extrachromosomal DNA
define mesosomes
membrane attached to both DNA and plasma membrane
define ribosome
composed of protein and ribosomal RNA as two subunits

contains of components for protein synthesis

# vary according to conditions
define inclusion granules
accumulation of nutrient reserves
define endospores
structure that enables the species to resist environmental conditions
how does bacterial replicate
binary fission
how do you measure bacterial growth
viable cell count: series of dilutions

direct particle counts: microscopic counting

turbidimetric determination: turbidity in spectrometer
define obligate anaerobe
grows only under conditions of high reducing intensity.

define aerotolerant anaerobe
do not utilize oxygen in their metabolism

can survive to an extent in presence of oxygen

metabolism via anaerobic respiration
define facultative anaerobe
can growing in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions
define microaerophile
grows at lower oxygen concentration and REQUIRE oxygen for metabolism
define obligate aerobe
REQUIRES oxygen for growth.

aerobic respiration
what are the three mechanism form Genetic Exchange
what is transformation
a process in which naked DNA derived from one cell or virus is taken up by another cell and recombines with the genome
what is transduction
DNA of one cell is introduced into another cell by virus infection.

Replication, along term of virus
what is conjugation
transfer of DNA by direct contact between cells. transferred through cytoplasmic bridge

sex factor is termed "F"
Define transposons
segment of dsDNA that can move from place to place within genomes or between genomes or phages or phage genomes

can cause mutation

do not carry genes controlling own replication

have insertion seq.
define insertion sequences
small segments of dsDNA that code for site specific recombination.

when integrated into genes, function and/or activity altered