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23 Cards in this Set

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Which bacteria make up the Anaplasmataceae? What kind of parasite is this?
Neorickettsia
Anaplasma
Ehrlichia

Obligate intracellular
What types of cells do Erlichia infect?

What is the vacuole that are contained within called?

What type of disease signs do they cause?
Obligate intracellular pathogens- in mammals Ehrlichia and related genera infect monocytes, macrophage, neutrophils. Quite unusual.

Live within a vacuole- a “_morulae_”.

Pathogenesis is confusing. Generalized signs.
How is Erlichia transmitted?

Are they contagious?
Most (all?) are transmitted via _insect vectors_ and are not
_contagious_.
What is the survival strategy of Erlichia and Rickettsia in the macrophage?
Same strategy in both insect and mammalian hosts. Erlichia avoids fusing with the lysosome and lives happily making its phagosome a bacteria-factory-containing morula.

Rickettsia escapes the phagosome.
How do nanophyetus salmonicola transmit Neorickettsia helminthocoeca to dogs?

Can you treat with antibiotics?
The bacteria is carried endosymbiontally in the fluke and gets to the dog when they eat raw wild salmon.

Canines are susceptible- raw fish are the source

Salmon poisoning is usually fatal if not treated  

Antibiotics effective. Supportive therapy important.

If untreated, death usually occurs within fourteen days of eating the infected fish.

_90%_ of dogs showing symptoms die if they are not treated.

Dogs that survive the disease are immune.
What are the signs of salmon poisoning disease in dogs? What virus does the bacterial dz present like?
Vomiting, lack of appetite, fever, diarrhea, swollen lymph nodes, dehydration. Signs can mimic _Parvo_ virus infection.
How is bovine anaplasmosis transmitted?

What are the signs?

Where does it infect?

Is it contagious?

Can you treat it with antibiotics.
•  Bovine anaplasmosis- _tick_-borne disease

•  Progressive anemia, jaundice, weight loss, sensitive to hypoxia.

•  Mortality can be high, may be more serious in adults.

•  Unusual intracellular pathogen- lives in RBC’s.

•  Not contagious. Many ticks can transmit

•  Can be treated with antibiotics, vaccines available.
Can you diagnose Ehrlichia on basis of signs?
No.

Many signs are similar: Fever, anorexia, headache, weight loss,
reduced production. Most disease resolves without complications.
What Ehrlichia infects both horses and humans?
E. equi= Anaplasma phagocytophilum: (HGE agent) equine ehrlichiosis- Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in all species. Tick-borne fever of ruminants.

A. phagocytophilum also causes a serious disease in humans (HGE).
What is Potomac Horse Fever?

What kind of anaplasmataceae like this?
E. risticii = Neorickettsia risticii: Potomac Horse Fever - transmitted through flukes, not ticks.

Flukes present in caddis flies carry the pathogen and can be used as a source of experimental infection of horses.
What causes the bovine disease Heartwater?

Is it fatal?

What kind of pathology does it cause?

What is the arthropod vector, what about the reservoirs?
Tick borne
Ehrlichia (Cowdria) ruminantium

•  Reservoirs include tortoises, birds, rabbits

•  Disease is limited to tropical Africa, Carribean
•  Intracellular- affinity for capillaries associated with the nervous system

•  Infects endothelial cells- damages integrity of the capillaries.
•  Similar disease as found in Rickettsial infections- damage
to vascular endothelium.

•  Can be highly fatal

•  Risk for importation of tick on _reptilian_ vectors. Keep Amblyomma out!
What disease does Rickettsia cause in animals?

What happens to humans if they get this disease?
Few pathogens of animals.

Dogs get Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever from Dermacentor ticks (dementor)

So do humans - untreated it can be fatal. Battle between septic shock and capillary damage (brought on through the Rickettsia targeting it).
Where is Rocky mount spotted fever found?
What signs does it have?
How can you treat it?

Can you get immunity to it?
Despite its name and original description as a disease of humans in the western United States, the majority of human cases of RMSF occur in the _southeastern_ United States. Ticks take 5-20 hours to transmit disease. Acute disease of spring and summer.

Fever, bloody discharge, ocular hemorrhage consistent finding. Many other signs. Decreased platelets, other signs of vascular damage.
Acute disease following contact with ticks or tick infected areas….. Think
antibiotics.

Solid immunity following recorvery.
What do Rickettsia tails look like?
Actin "comet tails"
What causes human to human epidemic typhus?

What is it transmitted by? What makes people susceptible to it?

How does the bacteria get into the human?
Rickettsia prowazekii- epidemic typhus.

Transmitted human to human by the _body louse_- humans are the reservoir. Apparently an identical organism has been identified in flying squirrels.

“Disease of _misery_”- occurs in times of crowding and poor sanitation.

Human louse feeds frequently and on different individuals.
After feeding on an infected human, large numbers of Rickettsia are shed in the louse feces. This is then rubbed into the bite site, or transferred from the site to mucus membranes- primarily the conjunctiva and respiratory tract.
What causes endemic typhus?

Is it milder or more severe than the rickettsia prowazekii?

What host maintains it?
Endemic typhus-

R. typhi.

Maintained in _rats_.

Disease less severe,
mortality rare.

30-60 cases/yr in
US- mainly TX gulf
coast
What is piscirickettsia?
Piscirickettsia- pathogen of salmonid fish. Acute outbreaks/high
mortality in pen-reared salt water fish- Chile, Norway.

Piscirickettsia likely important in other fish as well.
What kind of fever does Coxiella burnetti cause?

Is it zoonotic? What symptoms does it cause?

How many particles of this bacteria is needed to cause disease?
Thought to be the most _infectious_ of all organisms- inhalation of 1
organism can cause disease.!
Can cause abortions in ruminants, but real concern is _zoonotic_
potential. Influenza-like symptoms, endocarditis.!
“Query fever”- originally there was much confusion about the
causative agent.!
Where does Coxiella burnetti live?

Why is it perfect for a bioterror agent?
Obligate intracellular

Interesting aspect of C. burnetii: One of only a few organisms that
live in a mature lysosome. It doesn't even start functioning until pH is 4.5

Class A Bioterror agent- infectious stage is stable, can be spread via
aerosols, and the pathogen can cause fatal disease.!
What other bacteria is the developmental cycle of Coxiella burnetti like?

Is it treatable by antibiotics?
Chlamydia.

It is thought that activity of antibiotics might be hindered because of life in a phagolysosome… Maybe antibiotics aren’t as active…

Biggest concerns are possible zoonotic and bioterror associations.
Where is Coxiella acquired from?
Acquired from dust- VERY _stable_, VERY _infectious_ sporelike particle.
What is the one Coxiella species?
Coxiella burnetti.

This is very rare. As a lineage it is thought that it hangs out in ticks - it's thought that this one just discovered it could live in mammals.
Have obligate intracellular bacteria developed antibiotic resistance?
The obligate intracellular bacteria as a rule have not developed any serious antibiotic resistance. Exception: certain chlamydial pathogens.