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66 Cards in this Set

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Gastrointestinal infections
Inflammatory diarrhea (usually marked by the presence of fecal leukocytes)
Hemorrhagic colitis
Non-inflammatory diarrhea
Enteric fever
Mesenteric lymphadenitis
Peptic ulcer disease
Inflammatory diarrhea (usually marked by the presence of fecal leukocytes)
Shigella sp.
Salmonella sp. (nontyphoidal)
Yersinia enterocolitica
enteroinvasive Escherichia coli
enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (minimal to moderate number)
Campylobacter sp.
Clostridium difficile (causes antibiotic associated diarrhea or pseudomembranous enterocolitis)
Hemorrhagic colitis
Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (including enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli) (rarely fever; bloody diarrhea with few or no fecal leukocytes)
Non-inflammatory diarrhea (watery diarrhea without fecal leukocytes)
enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Enteric fever
Salmonella enterica, serovar Typhi
Salmonella enterica, serovar Paratyphi
Mesenteric lymphadenitis
Yersinia enterocolitica
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
Peptic ulcer disease
Helicobacter pylori
Respiratory infections
Pharyngitis (often caused by viruses)
Otitis media (often caused by viruses)
Acute sinusitis
Bullous myringitis
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Epiglottitis
Pneumonia
Pertussis (whooping cough)
Diphtheria
Tuberculosis
Pharyngitis (often caused by viruses)
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A) - 15-30% of cases
Mycoplasma pneumoniae - <1 % of all cases
Neisseria gonorrhoeae - < 1% of all cases
Corynebacterium diphtheriae - < 1% of all cases
Otitis media (often caused by viruses)
Streptococcus pneumoniae - 30% of bacterial cases
Streptococcus pyogenes - < 10% of bacterial cases
Haemophilus influenzae (non-typable) - 20% of bacterial cases
Acute sinusitis (often caused by viruses)
Streptococcus pneumoniae - ca. 30% of all cases
Haemophilus influenzae (non-typeable ) - ca. 20% of all cases
Bullous myringitis
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Epiglottitis
Haemophilus influenzae, type b
Typical pneumonia
Enterobacteriaceae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae, type b
Moraxella catarrhalis
Atypical pneumonia
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Legionella pneumophila
Chlamydia pneumoniae
Chlamydia psittaci
Coxiella burnetti
Pertussis (whooping cough)
specific disease caused by Bordetella pertussis
Diphtheria
specific disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Tuberculosis
Mycobacteria tuberculosis
Meningitis
Escherichia coli K1 and other Enterobacteriaceae

Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)
Neisseria meningitidis
Listeria monocytogenes
Haemophilus influenzae, type b
Urinary tract infections
Escherichia coli
Enterobacter sp. and several other members of the Enterobacteriaceae
Proteus mirabilis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Enterococcus sp.
Sexually-transmitted infections
Mycoplasma hominis
Ureaplasma urealyticum
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Haemophilus ducreyi
Chlamydia trachomatis, serovars D-K
Chlamydia trachomatis, serovars L1, L2, L3
Treponema pallidum
(ALSO: the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis; see lecture on bacterial vaginosis)
Wound infections
Vibrio vulnificus
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Acinetobacter baumanni
Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium tetani
Clostridium perfringens

Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus intermedius
Streptococcus pyogenes, Group A
(Note: there are many other bacteria that can infect wounds)
Skin infections
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A)
Mycobacterium leprae
Systemic infections-Nosocomial
Escherichia coli
Klebsiella pneumonia
Enterobacter sp.
Proteus sp.
Serratia marcescens
Acinetobacter
Bacteroides fragilis and other normal flora anaerobes
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Systemic infections-Non-nosocomial
Salmonella typhi (and other Salmonella sp. occasionally)
Campylobacter jejuni
Clostridium perfringens
Bacillus anthracis

Neisseria meningitidis
Listeria monocytogenes
Borrelia recurrentis
Borrelia hermsii
Leptospira interrogans
Rickettsiae sp.
Ehrlichia sp.
Bartonella quintana
Bartonella henselae
Yersinia pestis
Brucella sp.
Francisella tularensis
localized infections with systemic manifestations due to toxins
hemolytic uremic syndrome
tetanus
botulism
anthrax

bullous impetigo
scalded skin syndrome
staphylococcus toxic shock syndrome
diphtheria
pertussis
Food poisoning by ingestion of a pre-formed toxin
Clostridium botulinum
Bacillus cereus
Staphylococcus aureus
Disease agents that induce rashes
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A)
Neisseria meningitidis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Treponema pallidum (syphilis)
Borrelia burgdorferi
Rickettsia prowazekii
Rickettsia typhi
Rickettsia rickettsii
Rickettsia akari
Ehrlichia chaffeenis
Anaplasma phagocytophilia
Rickettsia tsutsugamushi
Agents of human diseases that are zoonotic (animal reservoir)
Salmonella sp. (non-typhoidal)
Yersinia enterocolitica
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
Yersinia pestis
STEC / enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
Campylobacter jejuni
Clostridium perfringens, type A
Bacillus anthracis
Listeria monocytogenes
Francisella tularensis
Brucella sp.
Rickettsia sp. (not R. prowazekii, except perhaps a flying squirrel reservoir)
Borrelia recurrentis
Borrelia burgdorferi
Leptospira interrogans
Ehrlichia sp.
Bartonella henselae
Chlamydia psittaci
Staphylococcus intermedius
Coxiella burnetii
Bacterial pathogens that are vector-borne
Borrelia recurrentis
Borrelia burgdorferi
Rickettsia sp. (Coxiella burnetii ??)
Ehrlichia chaffeensis
Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Bartonella quintana
Bartonella henselae
Yersinia pestis
Francisella tularensis
Bacterial agents of congenital infections
Listeria monocytogenes
Treponema pallidum
Brucella sp
Bacteria that cause perinatal infections
Escherichia coli, K1
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Listeria monocytogenes
Chlamydia trachomatis
Sequelae to bacterial infections
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
Reiter’s syndrome
Guillain Barre syndrome
Rheumatic fever
Acute glomerular nephritis
Obsessive compulsive disorder (?)
Gastric carcinoma
Anti-phagocytic surface structures- Polysaccharide capsules
Salmonella typhi
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)
Neisseria meningitidis
Haemophilus influenzae
Anti-phagocytic surface structures- Protein structures
Staphylococcus aureus: protein A
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A): M protein
Neisseria gonorrhoeae: porin
Yersinia sp : Yop proteins
Pathogenic mechanisms/virulence factors: Adhesive surface structures
enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli - colonization fimbriae (CF, CFAs)
enteropathogenic Escherichia coli - bundle forming pilus
enteropathogenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli - intimin
uropathogenic E. coli - Pap pili (P-pili), type one fimbriae
Vibrio cholerae - toxin co-regulated pilus (Tcp)

Staphylococcus aureus - ribotechoic acid (binds fibrinogen)
Streptococcus pyogenes - lipoteichoic acid, F protein (binds fibrinogen)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae - P1 protein (attachment organelle)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae - fimbriae (pili)
Bordetella pertussis - filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae
Toxins that contribute to virulence of organisms in humans
Gram negative endotoxin (= lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide)
Shiga toxin (Shigella dysenteriae, type 1 and enterohemorrhagic E. coli)
ShET1 and ShET2 entertoxins of the shigellae / EIEC
heat labile toxin (of enterotoxigenic E. coli)
heat stable toxin (of enterotoxigenic E. coli)
cholera toxin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and exotoxin S
Pseudomonas aeruginosa phospholipase C
Pseudomonas aeruginosa hyaluronidase, collagenase, alkaline protease

Staphylococcal enterotoxins (food poisoning)
Staphylococcal exfoliatin - scalded skin syndrome, bullous impetigo
Staphylococcal TSST-1 - toxic shock syndrome
Staphylococcal leukocidin, hemolysins, hyaluronidase, coagulase
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A) erythrogenic toxin - rash of scarlett fever
diphtheria toxin
Pertussis toxin
Toxins - Mode of action: Cholera toxin and E. coli heat labile toxin (LT)
ADP ribosylation of adenylate cyclase regulatory protein; results in increased cAMP
Toxins - Mode of action: E. coli heat stable toxin (ST)
Stimulates guanylate cyclase resulting in increased cGMP.
Toxins - Mode of action: Shiga toxin (ST) of Shigella dysenteriae, type 1 and Enterohemorrhagic E. coli
Inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells
Toxins - Mode of action: Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and diphtheria toxin
Inhibit protein synthesis by ADP-ribosylation of EF-2
Toxins - Mode of action: Botulinum toxin
Blocks release of acetylcholine at synapse and neuromuscular junction; results in flaccid paralysis
Toxins - Mode of action: Tetanus toxin
inhibits inhibitory neurons; results in spastic paralysis
Toxins - Mode of action: Anthrax toxin
3 parts: Protective antigen; Edema factor (bacterial adenylate cyclase); Lethal factor.
Toxins - Mode of action: TSST-I, staphylococcal enterotoxins, streptococcal erythrogenic toxins (think Scarlett fever, toxic shock-like syndrome)
Superantigens; nonspecifically stimulate T cells to produce cytokines
Survival within phagocytes (facultatively intracellular for phagocytes)
Salmonella enterica, serovars Typhi and Paratyphi

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Legionella pneumophila
Listeria monocytogenes
Yersinia pestis
Brucella sp.
Francisella tularensis
Host protective immune mechanisms: Opsonization (host forms antibody against anti-phagocytic factor which then facilitates the uptake of the organism by the phagocyte)
Salmonella enterica, serovar Typhi

Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A)
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)
Neisseria meningitidis
Haemophilus influenzae, type b
Host protective immune mechanisms: Host forms antibody against bacterial adhesin, resulting in blocking of bacterial colonization
enterotoxigenic E. coli
Vibrio cholerae

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (although antigenic variation of gonococcal pili provides a mechanism of immune evasion)
Bordetella pertussis
Host protective immune mechanisms: Cell-mediated immunity
Salmonella typhi
Shigella sp.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Legionella pneumophila
Listeria monocytogenes
Yersinia pestis
Brucella sp.
Francisella tularensis
Gram positive cocci
Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B)
Enterococcus sp.
Viridans streptococcus
Streptococcus bovis
Remember: staphylococci and streptococci are distinguished by the catalase reaction
Gram positive rods
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Listeria monocytogenes
Lactobacillus sp. (commensal flora of vagina)
Gram negative cocci
Neisseria meningitidis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Moraxella catarrhalis
Gram negative rods
Klebsiella pneumoniae (in compromised patients)
Other Enterobacteriaceae (in compromised patients)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (in compromised individuals)
Acinetobacter

Legionella pneumophila (stains poorly with Gram stain)
Haemophilus influenzae
Haemophilus ducreyi
Bordetella pertussis
Bacteria for which the Gram stain cannot be used in laboratory diagnosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Mycoplasma hominis
Ureaplasma urealyticum
Treponema pallidum
Enteric Gram negative bacilli: Oxidase reaction positive
Campylobacter sp.
Vibrionaceae
Pseudomonadaceae
Enteric Gram negative bacilli: Oxidase Reaction negative
Enterobacteriaceae
Acinetobacter
Laboratory diagnosis for Enteric Gram negative bacilli:
oxidase reaction
growth on MacConkey agar
lactose fermentation on MacConkey agar
sorbitol fermentation (SMAC plates)
motility
urease production
swarming motility
pigment production
Enteric Gram negative bacilli: nonmotile
Shigella sp., Klebsiella
Enteric Gram negative bacilli: motile
Enterobacteriaceae
Campylobacter jejuni
Vibrionaceae
Helicobacter pylori
Pseudomonadaceae
Other important laboratory diagnostic tests
hemolysis on blood agar
catalase reaction
bacitracin sensitivity
optochin sensitivity
coagulase
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
immunochromatography
serotyping (slide agglutination, latex agglutination)
oxidase test
growth on selective agar (i.e. Thayer Martin, sodium tellurite, etc.)
non-treponemal tests (i.e. RPR, VDRL)
specific treponemal tests
DNA hybridization tests
PCR tests
Epidemiological tools
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)
Phage typing
Plasmid profiles
Serotyping
Variety of PCR-based techniques (i.e. DNA fingerprinting)
Vaccines for respiratory infections
DTaP
Pneumovax
Capsular and capsular conjugate vaccines for Neisseria meningitidis (exception: group B)
Haemophilus, type b conjugate vaccine
Vaccines for enteric infections
Purified Vi antigen (S. typhi)
Salmonella typhi Ty21A (live, attenuated vaccine)
Killed whole cells - Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella enterica, serovar Typhi
Protection/treatment of toxinoses
Passive transfer of antitoxin - botulism, tetanus, diphtheria
Active immunization - tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid
Reportable bacterial infections (CDC, 1997 MMWR)
Anthrax
Botulism
Brucellosis
Chancroid
Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections
Cholera
Diphtheria
Escherichia coli O157:H7
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli other than O157
gonorrhea
Haemophilus influenzae, invasive disease
Hansen disease (leprosy)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome, post-diarrheal
Legionellosis
Lyme disease
Meningococcal disease
Pertussis
Plague
Psittacosis
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Salmonellosis
Shigellosis
Streptococcal disease, invasive, Group A
Streptococcus pneumoniae, drug-resistant invasive disease
Streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome
Syphilis
Syphilis, congenital
Tetanus
Toxic-shock syndrome
Tuberculosis
Typhoid fever
Potential Biowarfare Agents
Botulism toxins
Bacillus anthracis

Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B
Coxiella burnetii
Yersinia pestis
Brucella sp.
Francisella tularensis