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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are the broad spectrum inhibitors?
chloramphenicol and tetracyclines
what are the moderate spectrum?
macrolides
what are the narrow spectrum?
lincosamides, streptogramins, and linezolid
what is the proto for chloramphenicols?
chloramphenicol
what is the proto for tetracyclin?
tetracycline with variants democlocycline, doxycycline, minocycline, clarithromycin
what is the proto of macrolides?
erthromycin, with varients azithromycin, clarithromycin
proto of lincosamides
linomycin with variant clindamycin
proto of streptogramins?
quinupristine-dalfopristin
proto of oxazoladinones
linezolid
what binds close to the 50S subunit? and bacteriostatic
chloramphenicols, clyndamycin, and macrolides
which blocks the charged tRNA molecule from binding to the acceptor site on the ribosome mRNA complex?
chloramphenicol
what blocks translocation from the acceptor site to the donor site?
macrolides and clindamycin
what blocks formation of the initiation complex?
macrolides
what binds to the 30s subunit at a site that blocks charged tRNA to the acceptor site?
tetracyclines
what binds to the 50s subunit, not permitting the exit?
streptogramins
what inhibits initiation by blocking formation of the tRNA ribosome mRNA ternary complex?
linezolid, by binding to the 50S
what can chloramphenicol affect?
mito ribosomes since they contain 70S rRNA.
can chloramphenical readily cross the placenta and bbb?
yes
what are suseptible to chloram?
strains of h. influenza, N. meningitidis and bacteroids and for these the drug maybe cidal.
how is resistance formed?
plasmid mediated, occurs through the formation of acetlytransferases that inactivate the drug
common use of chloram is ?
topical agent
back up for severe infections caused by
salmonella, and pnuemococcal and meningococcal meningitis in beta-lac resistant individuals. can also be used for ricketsial ds. and for anearobe infections
what can occur with chloram?
superinfection with candidiasis
what occurs in the bone marrow?
inhibition of red cell maturation leading to decrease in circulatong RBC´s..this is dose dependant and reversible. aplastic anemia is rare and fatal.
gray baby syndrome?
infants characterized by cyanosis and cardiovascular collapse. neonates are deficient in hepatic glucuronosyltransferase, the enzyme required for chloramphenical elimination.
drug interaction with?
phenytoin, coumarins, tolbutamide
what can impair the availability of tetracyclins?
multivalent cations (calcium, iron, aluminim) and food. can cross the placental barrier
tetras activity against?
g+ and g-, rickettsia, chlamydia, mycoplasma and some protozoa
resistance is mediated?
plasmid
uses of tetra are?
DOG for infections of mycoplasma pnuemonia in adults, chlymidia, rickettsia, and vibrios and alternative for syphilis, and resp. tract infections and profilaxis in chronic bronchitis and acne.
specific uses are for?
h. pylori, doxycycline for limes ds. minocycline for meningococcal carier state.
which is used for the prevention of malaria and in the treatment of amebiasis?
doxy
which is used to manage ADH secreting tumors?
demeclocycline which inhibits the renal action of ADH
toxicity
possible life threatening colitis, mild nausea, the D, can lead to candidiasis (oral and vaginal) and possible super infection with c. dificile or s. aureas.
affects what in the fetus?
tooth enamal dysplacia and irregularities in bone growth. not indicated during pregnancy and can cause problems in the teeth of younger children, miscoloring, and crown deformation.
can cause what in patients with hepatic problems and in pregnacy?
hepatic necrosis
what syndrom can be caused?
(Fanconi´s syndrom, renal tubular acidosis)......demeclocycline may enhance skin sensativity to UV light..fotosensitivity....can cause dose dep. reversible dizziness and vertigo with doxy and mino.
with what drug are high levels achieved in tissues and in phagocytes 10 to 100 times higher than in plasma?
azithromycin
what is active against, campylobacter, chlymidia, mycoplasma, legionella, g+coci, and some g-organisms.
erythromocycin, with asi and clari having greater activitiy against chlymidia, M.avium and toxoplasma.
resitance in g+ is due to what?
production of methylase that adds a methyl group
which is extended for h.influenza, m. catarrhalis, and neisseria and for community aquired pnuemonia
azithromycin
treats m. avium complex, and in the regimine for ulcers?
claritho
adverse effects?
skin rashes, GI irritation, eosinophilia

erythromycin can cause hypersensetivity based acute cholestatic hepatitis
what can erythromycin increase?
anticoagulants, carbamazepine, cisapride, digoxin, theophyline, due to p450 inhibition. cardiac arythmias can occur when taking aztemizole
does azithro inhibit p450?
no
what is the use of clindamycin?
severe infections due to certain anearobes such as bacteroides. recommended for prophylaxis of endocarditis in vascular ds. patients with peni allergies. also affective against, p.carinii and t. gondii
what are some of the toxicities of clinda?
neutropenia, hepatic dysfunction, possible superinfection with c.difficile psuedomembranos colitis.
streptogramins
half life longer combined than alone. used for MRSA and VRSA and resistant enterococcus faecium.
what can they cause?
pain and arthralgia-myalgia syndrome and are potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 and increase plasma levels of cisapride, diazapem, warfarin
what is the new antibx?
linezolid acative against g+cocci, including stains resitant to beta lactams and vancomycin.