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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe the bacterial chromosome
dsDNA in circular genes
plasmids may store other genes (smaller pieces of DNA in cytoplasm)
operons allow or don't allow expression of genes
explain how mutations can occur
occur thru:
a. base mutations
b. deletions
c. inversions
d. duplications
e. transpositions
f. spontaneious (rare) and induced mutations (mutagens-uv light)
Define the three methods of intracellular DNA transfer
transformation, conjugation, transduction
1. donor cell releases free DNA
2. free DNA binds to recipient cell and is fragmented
3. fragemnts incroporate into recipeint cell DNA
Plasmids can transfer themselves; sometimes they integrate into chromsomes
when transferred it drags the crhsomoe along with it
use of a phage (bacteria infected w/virus) to transfer genes from one bacterial cell to another;
a. generalized-transferes any bacterial gene
b. specialized-only transfers genes adjacent to site of integration
List wasys bacteria can resist antibiotics:
1. degrade or alter it (B-lactamase & Aminoglycoside)
2. efflux pump-tetracycline
3. uptake reduced-cepahlosporin
4. overprodctuion of trage-sulfonamide
5. alteration of target-pencillin binding proteins (traspeptidase) & 50S ribsomoal subunit modified so that it still functions but macorlide can no longer bind
Explain the importance of R plasmids
R plamsids-small circlues of DNA that ofen caryry genes for antibotic resistnace, toxin production, orther virulence factors; leads to antiotic resitance
Explain the importance of transposons
reistant genes that jumping genes; carry insertion genes and can readily insert into bacteria; seen in antibotic resistance
Chromsome repliaction
always is the 5----> 3 direction; semiconservation, fast and accurate