Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
inability to synthesize an essential metabolite
the wildtype of a auxotroph which can grow on minimal medium (with carbon source) is called
an assay which orders genes in a biosynthetic pathway
Cross feeding
how does isolation w/penecilin work?
auxotrophic mutants do not grow in medium and penicillin

prototrophs grow but then are killed

(penecillin only kills growing cells)
genetic recombination which requires extensive DNA homology
general recombination
genetic recombination which requires small region of homology
site specific
genetic recompbination which requires no homology and occurs at low frequency
illegitamate recombination
integration of lysogenic bacteriophage such as lambda is an example of what kind of recombination
site specific
random integration of transposons is an example of
illegitamate recombination

IS inits are part of a transposon and the simplist transposon is just IS units
when you isolate a bunch of mutants with the same phenotype - this test can help you determine # of individual genetic elements
if genetic elements are on diff genes then will complementation occur
yet - but not when on same gene. (if on same genes - a defect in one is not fixed by the presence of the other
2 mechanisms which result in antibiotic resistance
1. mutation to antibiotic resistance
2. acquisition of drug resistance by RTF plasmid
when mutant phenotype is present only under certain conditions
conditional mutant
bacteriophage consists of
nucleic acid and protein coat
what part of the bacteriphage determines the type of bacteria it will infect
protein coat
how do you grow and assay bacterialphage
1. grown in actively growing bacterial culture
2. lysis of bacteria - release of phage
3. Quantify by plaque assay
4. plaques by diff phage have diff morphology (contain several million phages)
clear plaques characterize what life cycle
a kinetic analysis of phage reproduction shows that only phage nucleic acid enters cell is called
viral compenents are synthsized and assmeled late in infection
one step growth curve
temporate phages produce what plaques

temporate phage can follow either the lytic or lysofenic pathway (DNA is incorporated in host chromosome, phage genome is propagated as bacteria divide)
C1 repressor
represses lytic phase
degrades infecting foreign DNA (protection from bacteriophage)
restriction enzymes
modifys self DNA (protection from restriction enzymes)
modyfying enzymes

recognizes certain palindrome sequences. e.g Eco RI methylates
mobile genetic elements that integrate into bacterial chromosome and can jump from one location in DNA to another
the simplist transposon consists of only
IS (insertion sequences) w/ the help of transposase enzyme
pure IS sequence movement is an e.g of what kind of recombination
Illegitimate (non-homologous)
uptake of naked DNA from another bacteria
what kind of recombination takes place with transformaiton
DNA binds and enters cell where homologous recombination occurs
the ability to transform is called
used for linkage mapping mainly recombinating DNA Plasmids

(the ability to uptake naked bacterial DNA - type of homologous recombination)
bacterial DNA is moved from one bacteria to another by a virus
kind of transductio where phage particle contains ONLY host DNA
kind of transduction where the DNA is derived from the host and the phage
specialized transduction
type of transduction where
temperate phage integrates into host cell chromosome at specific local
specialized transduction
kind of transduction used to infect auxotoph with the machinery missing
generalized transduction

(phage ONLY carries DNA from host)
unequal exchange of genetic info between two parents

sexual reproduction in bacteria mating mediated by special class of plasmids called F plasmids
in conjugation the donr has the plasmid and is deemed
a bacteria is said to be "cured" when
it is converted from F+ to F-
High frequency transfer
extrachromosomal F plasmid integrates into bacterial chormosome
when nearby chromosomal genes are carried with F
the property that each amino acid is specified by more than one codon. one reason why mutations are sometimes silent
plasmids that encode antibiotics
a rescue of the phenotype of a mutant incapable of making a certain protein by supplying the protein to the mutant organism.
e.g introduction of a copy of the wild type gene into the organism
copy number
the number of copies of plasmid in a cell. controlled by a represor of plasmid replication
different plasmids control copy number with specific repressors. two very similar plasmids will be unable to coexist in the same cell due to the similarity of their repressors and can be grouped into the same
incompatibility group
an extrachromosomal DNA element that is capable of autonomous DNA replication: a plasmid
a kind og F factor that contains some host chromosomal genes - results from the insertion of the F into the host chromosome and susequent imprecise excisiont of the plasmid, thus taking some chromosomal genes with it
F' factor
the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another mediated by a specific type of bacteriophage
generalized transduction
plasmids integrating into bacterial genome with the help of IS units do this via what kind of recombination
a resistance plasmid RTF is often flanked by IS and can there for be transmitted to another RTF by

this is the mechanism by which multiple resistance arises
specific sequences that are involved in transposition. encode a transposas and mediate illegitimate recombination
IS element
a theory that genetic changes are induced by enviromental changes
example of temperate bacteriophage
a prophage
medium that contains a single carbon source, a nitrogen source, and a phosphate source.
minimal medium - only will support the growth of prototrophs
a clearing in a lawn of bacteria on agar dish caused by single bacteriophage undergoing replication and infectin and lysing neighboring cells
a chromosomally integrated genome of a temperate bacteriophage
a conjugative plasmid that carrieds one or more drug resistance genes
R factor
a mutation that reverse a mutation phenotype to the wild type
DNA replication; a parental DNA molecule is replicated into two molecules each with one strand derived from the parent and one newly synthesized strand
semiconservative replication
integration of a temperate bacteriophage into a specific location in host bacterial chromosome is an eg of
site-specific recombination
true revertant
reversal ofo original mutation
supressor revertant
restores wild type but occurs at a second site
the lederberg experiment showed what
resistant mutants appeared spontaneously then were selected for w/ antibiotic treatment