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18 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Base analogs
Type of mutagen.

Incorporated into DNA during replication, causing mispairing
Example of base analog
5-bromouracil, looks like thymine
Four types of mutagens
1) base analogs
2) Modifications of base structures
3) Intercalating agents
4) DNA damage
Modification of base structures, example?
Type of mutagen
alkylating agents which adds methyl group, affects pairing
Intercalating agents
Mutagen that insert into and distort DNA
Example of intercalating agent
Ethidium bromide
DNA damage
mutagen, can't act as replication template
Example of DNA damage
UV radiation, ionizing radiation, carcinogens
Two mutations that stop amino acid translation
nonsense mutation
frameshift mutation
Different types of point mutations
Silent mutation
Missense mutation
Nonsense mutation
Other types of mutations
Methods of horizontal Gene Transfer
Types and definitions of Transduction
Generalized - conducted by virulent phages

Specialized - take up only specific pieces of DNA, conducted by temperate phages
U-tube experiment
Complementary auxotrophs on each side of tube with membrane filter.

Conclusion: must be physical contact for recombination to occur
Tatum and Ledenberg experiment
Mix auxotrophic bacteria together with >2 mutations.

Conclusion: Bacteria recombination occurs
enzyme that recognizes the IR (inverted repeats) and promotes transposition
Insertion sequences
IS - short sequence of DNA containing only genes required for transposition, flanked by inverted repeats
Important of Transposons
1) Mutation or DNA rearrangement
2) Termination sequences to block
3) Promoters that activate genes
4) Some bear transfer genes --> conjugative transposon