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8 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
1. Four reasons why an organism is difficult to gram stain?
1. Too thin to be seen by light microscopy
2.Weak gram stain reaction

3. Cell wall does not take up gram stain
4. No cell wall or peptidoglycan
2. Chlamydia and Chlamydophila can't grow on cell cultures, so they have elementary and reticulate bodies. Explain the difference?

Why are they called energy parasites?
Elementary bodies- metabolically inactive, infectious form

Reticulate bodies- metabolically active, non-infectious form

They cannot make their own ATP, so they co-opt to cell's
3. Name the two kinds of Chlamydia (Two biological variants (biovars) based on the type of host cells they infect)

What are the kinds of diseases with the STD?
Chlamydia trachomatis -An STD
Chlamydophila pneumoniae -A respiratory infection

Eye infections (Trachoma and Neonatal Conjunctivitis)

Urethritis, cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (salpingitis)
4. What is the source of Chlamydia trachomatis?

3 ways it spreads?
Human pathogen – no animal or environmental reservoirs

Transmitted by direct contact with infected secretions (Flies, Hands in eyes, and Sexual contact)
5. Three clinical manifestations of Chlamydophila pneumoniae?

(Respiratory droplets-No animal reservoirs)
6. Two virulence factors for Chlamydia?
1. Intracellular survival
Prevents fusion of phagosome with lysosomes
2. LPS
Most of diseases manifestations are due to inflammatory response to LPS
7. What is the bacteria that causes Syphilis?
hint: Tre Pally

Describe the shape of the bacteria
Treponema pallidum

Corkscrew motility
8. Describe the virulence of Treponema pallidum?
Has not been grown in culture, thus knowledge of virulence factors is limited
Disease manifestations are due to host inflammatory response
Gram-negative cell wall structure, however, no LPS
Outer membrane proteins are involved in adherence
Coat themselves with fibronectin to avoid phagocytosis
Secrete hyaluronidase- aids in spread