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34 Cards in this Set

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Growth characteristics of Staph aureus:
-Nonmotile
-Non sporeforming
-Facultative anaerobe
Medical significance of staph aureus:
Virulent
Skin infections caused by Staph aureus (6):
I C FACE
Impetigo
Carbuncles
Furuncles
Abcess
Cellulitis
Erysipelas
How does Staph aureus cause bacteremia and sepsis?
By hematogenous spread
3 bugs that cause Endocarditis:
which is worst?
-Staph aureus - worst
-Strep viridans
-Strep faecalis
SBAPOFT
Skin infections
Bacteremia
Acute endocarditis
Pneumonia
Osteomyelitis
Food poisoning
Toxic shock syndrome
3 symptoms of Staph aureus caused pneumonia:
-Cavitations
-Effusions
-Empyema
Incubation period and symptoms of Staph aureus caused Food poisoning:
-1-8 hr incubation
-Vomiting
-Preformed toxin
4 important symptoms of TSS:
-Fever
-Vomiting
-Diarrhea
-DIFFUSE ERYTHEMATOUS RASH
3 major diagnostic lab tests for Staph aureus:
-GPC in clusters - grapes
-Catalase pos
-Coagulase pos
Where Staph aureus is naturally found:
-Ubiquitous
-Normal flora in skin/nose
3 pathogenic toxins of Staph aureus:
-Enterotoxin
-TSST-1
-Exfoliatin
Symptoms caused by Enterotoxin, special features of it:
-Vomiting, diarrhea
-Heat resistant, released in intestine
Where in the body TSST-1 is pathogenic:
special name for this toxin:
-Wounds
-Tampons
-Superantigen
Symptom of Exfoliatin toxin:
scalded skin
3 molecules released by Staph aureus that allow for tissue spread:
-Alpha toxin
-Hyaluronidase
-Fibrinolysin
Another name for alpha toxin:
Lecithinase
2 symptoms/results of Alpha toxin:
-skin necrosis
-hemolysis
What does Hyaluronidase do?
Breaks down proteoglycans
What does Fibrinolysin do?
Breaks down fibrin clots
4 molecules on Staph aureus that allow for Immune Evasion:
-Protein A
-Coagulase
-Hemolysin
-Leukocidin
What does Protein A do?
-Binds IgG-Fc
-Blocks opsonization
-Blocks complement fixation
What does Coagulase do?
Activates prothrombin
What does Hemolysin do?
Destroys RBCs, PMNs, MOs, and Platelets
What does Leukocidin do?
Destroys WBCs
Characteristics of Staph aureus on culture plate:
-Beta hemolysis
-Coagulase pos
-Yellow pigment
2 Coag neg staphs:
-Staph epidermidis
-Staph saprophyticus
Diagnostic test for S. epidermidis:
-Catalase pos
-Coagulase neg
-Novobiocin sensitive
How to remember that Staph epi is novobiocin sensitive:
SENSITIVE SKIN
Diagnostic test feature of Staph saprophyticus:
Novobiocin resistant
3 antibiotics for Staph aureus in light of the fact that Beta lactamase producers are common:
-Methicillin
-Nafcillin
-Dicloxacillin
Treatment for MRSA:
Vancomycin
What infections is Staph epi associated with?
IV catheters
damaged/prosthetic heart valves
What infection is Staph saprophyticus associated with?
Community acquired UTIs in young sexually active females