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87 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Streptococci are what kind of bacteria
Gram positive cocci in pairs or chains
-Catalase negative
-Facultative anaerobes
-Capnophilic - like CO2
Describe alpha hemolysis
Partial hemolysis, green color
-S. pneumoniae
Beta hemolysis
Complete hemolysis, clear
-S.pyogenes
Gamma hemolysis
No hemolysis
-Enterococcus
S. pyogenes is group _
A
S. agalactiae is group _
B
Group D strep is _
E. faecalis
Strep pyogenes - group and hemolysis
A, beta hemolysis
Strep pyogenes is associated with what diseases _
-Pharyngitis - strep throat
-Skin infections
Strep. pyogenes infection can be treated with
Penicillin
Strep pyogenes is transmitted through
-Droplets
-Contact
Strep pyogenes is normally present at _
Upper respiratory tract, skin
Virulence factors for strep.pyogenes
-Adhesins
-Pyrogenic exotoxins - spe's
-superantigens
Describe M protein
-Virulence factor for strep. pyogenes, w/out it bacteria is avirulent
-looks like pili
-major antiphagocytotic component
-can bind to fibrinogen or Fc portion of IgG and make it seem like part of the host
-can also bind complement factor H to prevent destruction by complement
Describe SPE's
-Strep pyrogeic exotoxins
-A, B, C, F
-mediate pyrogenicity
-responsible for toxic shock like syndrome
-responsible for rash in scarlet fever
2 main signs of scarlet fever
-Sandpaper rash
-Strawberry tongue
Streptokinase
-Turns plasminogen into plasmin
-Plasmin dissolves clots
-Contributes to ability to spread
-Used as clot buster
Diseases associated with S. pyogenes
Pharyngitis - scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis
Impetigo
Cellulitis
Necrotizing fasciitis
Erysipelas
Rheumatic fever
Follows pharyngitis
Inflammation of the heart, heart valves are damaged by Ab's
Acute glomerulonephritis
-Follows pharyngitis or skin infection
-Usually in children
-Antibodies deposited in kidneys
How do you diagnose strep. pyogenes in lab
-Beta hemolytic
-Bacitracin sensitive
Strep. agalacticae group and hemolysis
Group B, beta hemolysis (but some are non hemolytic)
Strep. agalactiae is normally present where
Vagina of some women
Virulence factors for strep. agalactiae
-Capsule
-C5a peptidase
Groups at risl for strep. agalactiae
-neonatal meningitis
-post partum sepsis
-diabetic - lower limb infections
Strep. agalactiae can be treated with _
Penicillin
How do you transmit strep. agalactiae
-Birth canal
-Contact spread in nursery
Most common cause of pneumonia
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus pneumniae has what shape
diplococci ( in pairs)
Streptococcus pneumoniae - group and hemolysis
Alpha hemolysis
-No group
Virulence factor for streptococcus pneumoniae
CAPSULE - ESSENTIAL
Also adhesins, IgA protease, pneumolysin (makes pores in cell membrane)
Importance of pneumolysis
-Makes holes in membrane
-Triggers immune reaction and inflammatory response
-Binds Fc portion of Ab
Strep. pneumoniae is normally present in
Respiratory tract
Transmission of strep. pneumoniae
Droplets, often preceded by viral infection that damages ciliated respiratory cells
Pathogenesis of strep pneumonia
-Rapid onset
-Chills and fever
-RUSTY SPUTUM (bloody)
-Many PMN's
Other clinical diseases associated with S. pneumoniae
-Meningitis
-Bacteremia
-Otitis media
-Sinusitis
How do you diagnose strep pneumoniae in the lab
-Alpha hemolytic
-Optochin sensitive
-Bile soluble
-Quellung reaction - swelling reaction
Viridans streptococci hemolysis
Alpha hemolysis
Virulence factor for streptococcus pneumoniae
CAPSULE - ESSENTIAL
Also adhesins, IgA protease, pneumolysin (makes pores in cell membrane)
Viridans strep is normally present_
In GI, genitourinary tract, respiratory tract (rare on skin)
Virulence factor for streptococcus pneumoniae
CAPSULE - ESSENTIAL
Also adhesins, IgA protease, pneumolysin (makes pores in cell membrane)
Importance of pneumolysis
-Makes holes in membrane
-Triggers immune reaction and inflammatory response
-Binds Fc portion of Ab
S. viridans causes what?
-Cavities
-Subacute bacterial endocarditis
-Intra abdominal infections
Strep. pneumoniae is normally present in
Respiratory tract
Importance of pneumolysis
-Makes holes in membrane
-Triggers immune reaction and inflammatory response
-Binds Fc portion of Ab
Transmission of strep. pneumoniae
Droplets, often preceded by viral infection that damages ciliated respiratory cells
Enterococcus group and hemolysis
Group D, hemolysis can be alpha, beta and gamma
Pathogenesis of strep pneumonia
-Rapid onset
-Chills and fever
-RUSTY SPUTUM (bloody)
-Many PMN's
Strep. pneumoniae is normally present in
Respiratory tract
Enterococcus diseases
UTI (catalase negative if catalase positive - staph)
Endocarditis
Septicemia after abdominal surgery
Other clinical diseases associated with S. pneumoniae
-Meningitis
-Bacteremia
-Otitis media
-Sinusitis
Enterococcus can be resistant to _
Vancomycin
Transmission of strep. pneumoniae
Droplets, often preceded by viral infection that damages ciliated respiratory cells
How do you diagnose strep pneumoniae in the lab
-Alpha hemolytic
-Optochin sensitive
-Bile soluble
-Quellung reaction - swelling reaction
Pathogenesis of strep pneumonia
-Rapid onset
-Chills and fever
-RUSTY SPUTUM (bloody)
-Many PMN's
Viridans streptococci hemolysis
Alpha hemolysis
Other clinical diseases associated with S. pneumoniae
-Meningitis
-Bacteremia
-Otitis media
-Sinusitis
Viridans strep is normally present_
In GI, genitourinary tract, respiratory tract (rare on skin)
How do you diagnose strep pneumoniae in the lab
-Alpha hemolytic
-Optochin sensitive
-Bile soluble
-Quellung reaction - swelling reaction
Viridans streptococci hemolysis
Alpha hemolysis
S. viridans causes what?
-Cavities
-Subacute bacterial endocarditis
-Intra abdominal infections
Enterococcus group and hemolysis
Group D, hemolysis can be alpha, beta and gamma
Viridans strep is normally present_
In GI, genitourinary tract, respiratory tract (rare on skin)
Enterococcus diseases
UTI (catalase negative if catalase positive - staph)
Endocarditis
Septicemia after abdominal surgery
S. viridans causes what?
-Cavities
-Subacute bacterial endocarditis
-Intra abdominal infections
Enterococcus group and hemolysis
Group D, hemolysis can be alpha, beta and gamma
Enterococcus can be resistant to _
Vancomycin
Enterococcus diseases
UTI (catalase negative if catalase positive - staph)
Endocarditis
Septicemia after abdominal surgery
Enterococcus can be resistant to _
Vancomycin
Virulence factor for streptococcus pneumoniae
CAPSULE - ESSENTIAL
Also adhesins, IgA protease, pneumolysin (makes pores in cell membrane)
Importance of pneumolysis
-Makes holes in membrane
-Triggers immune reaction and inflammatory response
-Binds Fc portion of Ab
Strep. pneumoniae is normally present in
Respiratory tract
Transmission of strep. pneumoniae
Droplets, often preceded by viral infection that damages ciliated respiratory cells
Pathogenesis of strep pneumonia
-Rapid onset
-Chills and fever
-RUSTY SPUTUM (bloody)
-Many PMN's
Other clinical diseases associated with S. pneumoniae
-Meningitis
-Bacteremia
-Otitis media
-Sinusitis
How do you diagnose strep pneumoniae in the lab
-Alpha hemolytic
-Optochin sensitive
-Bile soluble
-Quellung reaction - swelling reaction
Viridans streptococci hemolysis
Alpha hemolysis
Viridans strep is normally present_
In GI, genitourinary tract, respiratory tract (rare on skin)
S. viridans causes what?
-Cavities
-Subacute bacterial endocarditis
-Intra abdominal infections
Enterococcus group and hemolysis
Group D, hemolysis can be alpha, beta and gamma
Enterococcus diseases
UTI (catalase negative if catalase positive - staph)
Endocarditis
Septicemia after abdominal surgery
Enterococcus can be resistant to _
Vancomycin
Name gram negative enteric rods
Shigella
E.coli
Salmonella enterica
Klebsiella pneumonia
Proteus mirabilis
Yersinia pestis
Spread of gram negative rods
-Through humans - salmonella enterica subtype typhi
-Through animals - salmonella, yersinia
-Endogenous - E.coli
Media for gram negative rods
MacConkey agar - selects for gram negative rods (lactose fermenting) - pink
Eosin Methylene blue
Leading cause of gram negative sepsis
E.coli
ETEC
Traveler's diarrhea
-Acquired from contaminated food and water
-Diarrhea develops after 1-2 days of incubation and can last for 3-4 days
-Symptoms - cramps, nausea, vomitting, WATERY DIARRHEA
-There are no histological changes in intestinal mucosa since there is no penetration