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128 Cards in this Set

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What is normal Flora?
a complex ecosystem of microbes in the GI tract.
what type of bacteria make up the normal flora?
anaerobic bacteria predominate (99.9%). The rest are faculatative (e coli, proteus, klebsiella, etc). In the oropharyngeal area: gram pos and neg faculative and obligate anaerobes, + mycoplasma
are microorganisms other than bacteria part of the normal flora?
yes. In the oropharyngeal area- spirochetes, candida albicans,
What is the role, if any, of normal flora? (are they good or bad?)
Synthesize vitamins (esp B complex), involved in nutrient metabolism, involved in maturation of the immune system (peyers), development of intestinal vasculature, constitute significant barrier effect by competitive exclusion
What is the term for inflammation of the gum?
Gingivitis
Gum inflammation precedes what more serious type of inflammation?
Periodontitis
What are the three major steps in periodontal dz?
"Dental pellicle- organic matrix of salivary proteins and polysaccharides adhering to the tooth surface. Dental plaque- dense matrix of bacteria adhering to the dental pellicle. Dental calculus- tarter / mineralized plaque. 2. Calculus forms in gingival sulcus causing gingival inflammation and eventually loss of attachment of gingival epithelium to tooth with the formation of a Periodontal pocket 3. Chronic inflammation and possibly enzymes and/or toxins from the bacteria result in alveolar bone loss (loose tooth). This can result in increased incidence of bacteremia leading to endocarditis or infections in other area of the body.
What is the final direct result of periodontitis?
Alveolar bone resorption
What is a complication of periodontitis?
increased incidence of bacteremia leading to endocarditis or infections in other areas of the body
what is the term often used for candidiasis of the upper alimentary tract?
Thrush or mycotic stomatitis
what is the most common predisposing factor for candidiasis of the upper GI tract?
associated with oral antimicrobials in young animals
describe the agent of candidiasis in a mucosal infection. What would the agent look like if it breached the mucosal surface and invaded deeper into tissue?
Mucosal infection: whitish gray plaques on mucous membranes of tongue and upper GI tract; turkish towel appearance. May coalesce to form pseudomembrane, may slough to form ulcers. As it becomes more invasive- see pseudohyphae and hyphae.
Inflammation of a bird's crop
ingluvitis
What is the agent of wooden tongue in cattle?
actinobacillus lignieresii
Where is the agent normally found?
part of the normal oral flora
how effective is tx of wooden tongue?
effective with penicillins or tetracyclines. Iodid therapy may be beneficial. Management important- avoid rough/traumatic feedstuffs
Understand E. coli is a diverse group of organisms, many commensals, several pathogens
wide variety within the "species." Many are normal flora, few have the ability to become pathogens
understand neonatal e. coli diarrhea of calves and piglets
due to intestinal colonization with enterotoxigenic e coli. Has two virulence factors - fimbria and secretion of enterotoxin (leads to net ion/fluid loss)
What are some non-specific infections that are commonly caused by e, coli?
otitis externa, mastitis, cystitis
what are some specific diseases caused by e coli?
Neonatal diarrhea of calves/piglets, weaning diarrhea of pigs, edema dz of swine
are e. coli infections communicable?
yes - via fecal oral route
are e. coli infections treatable?
yes, but very important to know the sensitivity of the organism! MDR is possible
explain the term enterotoxigenic e coli
a strain of e. coli that produces LT and ST toxins. It causes a non inflammatory GI disease
what is the cause of diarrhea produced by ETEC
Heat labile enterotoxin (LT) is only produced by (some) porcine strains. It is a large protein that is immunogenic. LT enters enterocyte and stimulates cAMP production resulting in increased secretion of sodium and chloride ions and water. Heat stable enterotoxin (ST) is produced by all porcine and bovine strains. It is small, non-immunogenic protein. ST binds to epithelial cell and stimulates cGMP resulting in secretion of sodium and bicarbonate ions and water and decreased absorption of chloride ions.
what is the character of the feces produced
profuse, watery diarrhea
why is disease usually restricted to neonates
poor mucosal development, poor colostral intake
What are important factors in controlling the dz?
Ensure good colostral intake. Isolate diarrheaic animals, use good hygeine. Can give oral monoclonal K99 ab to calves after birth
how can you immunize calves or piglets against ETEC infection?
Bovine K99 bacterins to dams prior to calving; porcine- similar vaccines that contain several fimbrial types (k99, k88, k987) and also contain LT enterotoxin toxoid.
what type of clinical signs are characteristic of edema dz in swine?
peracute deaths or acute CNS signs of ataxia, convulsions and paralysis and edema
describe how e. coli causes these types of clincal signs
dz is due to toxin causing vascular lesions in the intestine, subcutis and brain
know taxonomic and morphologic features of salmonella
-member of the enterobacteriaceae family. Lactose non-fermenters. Over 2300 serovars. SALMONELLA ENTERICA - group includes all pathogens, 1 of 2 major species.
know treatment and prevention aspects of salmonella
antimocribals for septicemia/enteritis cases-- resistance is a problem. minimize environmental contamination and spread of the organiasm. Locate and eliminate the source of the organism. Minimize stress placed on the animals. Vaccinate - whole cell bacterin, but not routinely used. Core vaccines reduce endotoxin effects
know sources of salmonella
carrier animals are reservoirs, fecal oral transmission.
know factors assoc with salmonelaa outbreak
most often young animals; stressed animals
know the disease patterns and associations for dogs
raw meat diets increase risk/ carrion eating. Enteritis/enterocolitis/ Febrile. Contaminated treats/feed. High prevalence in shelter dogs
know the disease patterns and associations for cats
raw meat, songbird fever. Febrile enterocolitis/enteritis. High on DDx list for septicemia
know the disease patterns and associations for horses
post-sx, stress, transport, etc. many healthy horses are carriers. Assoc with small colon impaction. Foal septicemia/entercolits. Host adapted strain- salmonella anatum of s abortus equi
know the disease patterns and associations for cattle
calves (2-6wk)- neonatal diarrhea, sepsis. Usually acute eteritis, chronic enteritis/colitis (adults poor doers), gall bladder carriage. Salmonella dublin, s newport, s typhimurium
know the disease patterns and associations for swine
febrile enterocolitis. Septicemia somewhat common. Skin blanching. Feeder pigs> breeding stock. NO NURSERY DZ. Button ulcers, sailfish pigs. S. cholerasuis, typhimurium
know the disease patterns and associations for poultry: fowl typhoid
S. Gallinarum. Vertical transmisison. REPORTABLE. Multisystemic. Vaccine available but not utilized
know the disease patterns and associations for poultry: Pullorum Dz
S. Pullorum. Vertical transmission. Chicks <3wks. High mortality. Reportable
what are the clinical signs associated with salmonella
acute enteritis characterized by watery diarrhea which may contain mucous, fibrin, blood, mucosal flecks and sometimes casts. Septicemia- acute onset fever/depression. Adults can have chronic form
what are sources of salmonella
carrier animals are reservoirs, fecal oral transmission.
what factors are associated with an outbreak of salmonellosis
most often young animals; stressed animals
is salmonellosis treatable
antimocribals for septicemia/enteritis cases-- resistance is a problem.
is salmonellosis preventable
minimize environmental contamination and spread of the organiasm. Locate and eliminate the source of the organism. Minimize stress placed on the animals. Vaccinate - whole cell bacterin, but not routinely used. Core vaccines reduce endotoxin effects
Why is johne's dz sometimes called paratuberculosis?
it is a chronic dz of the intestinal tract of rums caused by mycobacterium avium subspp. paratuberculosis
what species of animals are susceptible to johne's dz?
Ruminants- cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, zoo rums/hoofstock
what are the main clinical signs of Johne's dz?
cattle- chronic diarrhea and wieght loss leading to emaciation. Sheep- intermittent diarrhea, weight loss, wool loss, emaciation.
at what age would clinical signs be seen for Johne's dz?
clinical signs not seen until 18-24mo of age
animals at what age are most susceptible to infection with johne's dz?
INFECTION occurs in animals less than 6 months of age
What are characteristic Johne's dz necropsy lesions
thickened intestinal wall with transverse folds that cannot be smoothed- corrugated appearance; may range from duodenum to rectum. Enlarged mesenteric and ileocolic lymph nodes.
how would one make a rapid presumptive dx at necropsy for Johne's?
open up the small intesting and look for abnormal gut wall.
how would you confirm a dx of johne's dz in a necropsied animal?
serology, histopath
how would you confirm a dx of johne's dz in a live animal?
serology
how would you confirm a dx of johne's dz in a herd?
serology
what other diseases are caused by clostridial organisms
blacklag (c. chauvoei)
what agent is the cause of neonatal clostridial dz in pigs/foals, overeating dz in sheep, necrotic wound infections and one of the most incriminated causes of canine diarrhea?
clostridium perfringens
bacillary hemoglobinuria of cattle and infectious necrotic hepatitis of sheep have the same pathogenesis but differ clinically. What is the pathogenesis and what accounts for the differences seen?
spores are ingested and localize in the liver. Germination occurs when an area of liver is damaged resulting in an anaerobic environement. Most common injury is due to migration of f. hepatica. Exotoxin is released from replication vegetative cells. In infectious necrotic hepatitis most of the damage is due to alpha toxin- lethal and necrotizing (toxemia). In bacillary hemoglobinuria, most of the damage is from beta toxin
both diseases can be controlled by 2 main methods. What are these methods?
Control liver flukes. Bacterin toxoid vaccination.
What do the following dz have in common: porcine intestinal adenomatosis; necrotic enteritis; hose pipe gut; garden hose gut; porcine hemorrhagic enteropathy; porcine ileitis
all part of the disease complex: porcine proliferative enteritis
what is the etiologic agent of the previous listed dz?
lawsonia intracellularis
what does it look like?
gram negative, curved rod
where do you find it?
obligate intracellular- found in cytoplasm of enterocytes of ileum and colon (crypt cells)
what causes bloody scours in swine?
swine dysentery - brachyspira hyodysteneriae
what is the etiologic agent of swine dystentery?
brachyspira hyodysenteriae
what are the main clinical signs of swine dyentery?
mucohemorrhagic diarrhea (often with fibrin); rice water stools; erosive colitis often with pseudromembrane formation.
what age pigs are generally affected?
feeder to finishing pigs (30-230lbs)
where do you find the organism in pigs?
in the large intestinal epithelial crype cells
what is the reservoir and how is the agent transmitted?
reservoir: carrier animals, cool dark environment. Fecal oral transmission
campylobacter etiology
gram negative, motile curved rod (comma, S, gull wing, or long spiral)
camplyobacter: what species can be affected? Which are more affected?
dogs, cats, ruminants, swine, birds. Higher rates in young dogs and shelter/kennel dogs
campylobacter: what role do animals play in this dz?
act as carriers - carry in the GI tract
campylobacter: what clinical signs are seen in animals with this agent
diarrhea (mucoid, bloody), tenesmus, vomiting.
campylobacter: what are the zoonotic implications
common. Children more frequently affected. Many cases result from raw/undercooked poultry; raw milk. Puppies and kittens- fecal-oral transmission to people
what is the bacterial agent that causes gastric ulcers and gastric carcinoma in humans?
helicobacter pylori
how does this agent survive in the acidid environment of the stomach?
stomach has a ph gradient- agent lives in the mucin layer with a more neutral ph. Also has acid / proton pumps
ddoes this agent occur in animals?
yes- dogs, cats, lab animals
what role does it play in dz in animals?
unknown. Gastritis experimentally (ferrets/cheetahs).
is this a zoonotic concern?
unknown/controversial
is salmon poisoning a dz caused by a toxin?
no- rickettsial agent
what is the agent of salmon poisoning
neorickettsia helminthoeca
how do dogs become infected
injest raw fish containing the nanophyetus salmincola metacercariae, which carries the agent
what are the major clinical signs
depression, fever, vomiting, diarrhea (usually bloody), anorexia, lymphadenopathy (generalized)
PHF causes what type of clinical signs/
acute dz- fever, anorexia, depression, diarrhea
what is the PHF agent?
neorickettsia risticii
how is PHF transmitted?
unknown? Drinking from infected streams/rivers
What is pythiosis?
a chronic granulomatous dz caused by pythium insidiosum (a fungal like org assoc with water)
what are the two major systems affected by this dz?
GI and cutaneous
in what animal do we most commony see intestinal pythiosis?
dogs
what is the general prognosis and tx regiment for intestinal pythiosis?
poor prognosis. Radical excision is best tx. Can try anti-fungals, but pythium does not have ergosterol so not stand alone tx
what is the pathophys of grain overlaod?
carbohydrates decrease rumen PH. Lactic acid corrodes- epithelial necrosis/sloughing. Fungal and bacterial invasion. Travel to liver via portal vein
what are potential complications of grain overlaod?
liver abscesses, endotoxemia
name fungi involved in mycotic rumenitis?
rhizopus, mucor, absidia, aspergillus
how do liver abscesses occur?
bacteria travel to liver via portal vein after invading through damaged rumen mucosa
what is the principal management location of liver abscesses to occur?
what is the etiology of liver abscesses?
fusobacterium necrophorum
what algae can cause dz in dogs?
prototheca zopfii
what region of GI tract is affected by prototheca?
distal SI and colon
what other body systems can be affected?
CNS, retina, urinary tract
enteric campylobacteriosis: etiology (genus species)
campylobacter jejuni
enteric campylobacteriosis: species affected
dogs, cats, rums, swine, birds
enteric campylobacteriosis: basic clinical signs and treatment
animal infections usually subclinical. Can see mucoid bloody diarrhea, tenesmus, vomiting in puppies/shelter/kennel dogs. Tx with erythromycin or tetracyclies
enteric campylobacteriosis: prevention aspects (as appropriate)
not always treated but can use erythromycin
helicobacter infections: etiology (genus species)
helicobacter pylori
helicobacter infections: species affected
humans, cats. (h felis- dogs/cats). Lab animals (h. hepaticus, h bilis)
helicobacter infections: basic clinical signs and treatment
gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, gastric cancer. Tx:
helicobacter infections: prevention aspects (as appropriate)
??
salmon poisoining dz: etiology (genus species)
neoricketsia helminthoeca
salmon poisoining dz: species affected
dogs
salmon poisoining dz: basic clinical signs and treatment
depression, fever, vomiting, diarrhea (usually bloody), anorexia, lymphadenopathy (generalized). TX: tetracyclines
salmon poisoining dz: prevention aspects (as appropriate)
don’t let dogs consume raw salmon
equine monocytic ehrlichiosis: etiology (genus species)
neorickettsia risticii
equine monocytic ehrlichiosis: species affected
equines
equine monocytic ehrlichiosis: basic clinical signs and treatment
acute dz with fever, anorexia, depression, diarrhea. TX: IV oxytet, supportive care
equine monocytic ehrlichiosis: prevention aspects (as appropriate)
vaccinate (Bacterin). Limit access to streams/rivers
intestinal pythiosis: etiology (genus species)
pythium insidiosum
intestinal pythiosis:: species affected
dogs, horses
intestinal pythiosis:: basic clinical signs and treatment
chronic granulomatous dz. Pyogranulamout enteritis. Dogs- wasting dz, diarrhea, vomiting. Tx: radical excision, antifungals (not sole tx)
intestinal pythiosis:: prevention aspects (as appropriate)
?
bovine rumenitis/liver abscesses: etiology (genus species)
mycotic rumenitis- rhizopus, mucor, absidia, aspergillus. Liver- fusobacterium necrophorum
bovine rumenitis/liver abscesses: species affected
cattle
bovine rumenitis/liver abscesses: basic clinical signs and treatment
endotoxemia. Tx- feed antimicrobials
bovine rumenitis/liver abscesses: prevention aspects (as appropriate)
restrict access to grains
canine protothecosis: etiology (genus species)
prototheca zopfii
canine protothecosis: species affected
dogs (Some bull,cat)
canine protothecosis: basic clinical signs and treatment
chronic colitis, weight loss. tX difficult
canine protothecosis: prevention aspects (as appropriate)
?