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76 Cards in this Set

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anatomical position
ensures that descriptions are not ambiguous
flexion
bending or decreasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body, movement in anterior direction except at knee
dorsiflexion
flexion at the ankle joint
extension
straightening or increasing the angle between the bones or parts of the body, movement in posterior direction excpt at knee
abduction
moving away from the median plane in the frontal plane
adduction
moving toward the median plane in a frontal plane
circumduction
a cuircular movement that is a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction in such a way that the distal end of the part moves in a circle
rotation
turning or revolving a part of the body around its longitudinal axis
pronation
the rotational movement of the forearm and hand that swings the radius medially around its longitudinal axis so that the palm of the hand faces posteriorly and dorsmum faces anteriorly
supination
rotational movement of the forearm and hand that swings the radius laterally round its longitudinal axis so that the dorsum of the hand faces posteriorly and the palm faces anteriorly
opposition
the movement by which the pad of the thumb is brought to another digit pad
reposition
describes the movement of the thumb from the position of opposition back to its anatomical position
protrusion (protraction)
movement anteriorly as in protruding the mandible, lips or tongue
retrusion (retraction)
is a movement posteriorly as in retruding the mandible, lips or tongue
elevation
raises or moves a part superiorly
depression
lowers or moves a part inferiorly
eversion
moves the sole of the foot away from the median plane
inversion
moves the sole of the foot toward the median plane
synovial joint
united by a joint capsule (composed of an outer fibrous layer spaning and enclosing an articular cavity, articular cavity is a potential space that contains lubricating synovial fluid

ex: knee
fibrous joint
united by fibrous tissue

-syndesmosis type-unites the bones with a sheet of fibrous tissue (either ligament or a fibrous membrane), partially moveable (ex: ulna and radius)

-ex:sutures of the cranium
cartilaginous joint
united by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage

-synchondroses-bones are united by hyaline cartilage, which permits slight bending during early life, usually temporary (ex: found in long bones during development)

-symphyses-strong, slightly moveable joints united by fibrocartilage (ex: intervertebral discs)
elastic arteries
largest (pulmonary trunk and aorta), tunica media is dominated by elastic tissue, internal elastic membrane and external elastic membrane present, thin tunica adventitia, has vasa vasorum (small blood vessels)
muscular arteries
most of the named arteries, has IEM and EEM, tunica media thick, composed of 40 layers of smooth muscle, tunica adventitia has collagen
arterioles
smallest arteries, thin tunica media, thin tunica adventitia (same size as media)
venules
smallest veins, cuboidal endothelium
medium veins
No IEM, tunica media consists of smooth muscle, tunica adventitia has collagen and elastic fibers
large veins
thicker tunica intima, tunica media is absent, tunica adventitia is the thickest layer, present vasa vasorum
plexus formation
adjacent anterior rami merge to form plexuses in which their fibers are exchanged and redistributed, forming a new set of multisegmental peripheral nerves, the fibers of a single spinal nerve entering the plexus are distributed to multiple branches of the plexus, the peripheral nerves derived from the plexus contain fibers from multiple spinal nerves
dorsal root ganglia
ganglia found in the dorsal root that house the cell body of motor sensory neurons
sympathetic ganglia
found in the symapathetic chanin
parasympathetic ganglia
found close to the target, have short postganglionic and long preganglionic
zygapophysial joints
facilitate and control the vertebral column’s flexibility, articulation point for superior 25 vertebrae, joints of the vertebral arches/facets, plane synovial joints, innervated by articular branches that arise from the medial branches of the posterior rami, supplied by two nerves
vertebral body
consists of vascular, trabeular bone enclosed by a thin external layer of compact bone
articular processes of vertebrae
four, determine the types of movements permitted and restricted between the adjacent vertebrae, keep vertebrae aligned (keep them from slipping anteriorly
C7 vertebrae
has the longest spinous process, prominence at the back of the neck when flexed
L5
largest of all movable vertebrae
cervical vertebrae
7, transverse foramen present

-movement-have the greatest range and variety of movement (due to relative thickness of the discs compared to body, the nearly horizontal orientation of the articular facets, and the small amount of body mass)
thoracic vertebrae
12, attachment for ribs (costal facets), inferiorly directed spinous process

-movement-articular processes extend vertically with coronally oriented articular facets (permits rotation (which is greatest in this region) and some lateral flexion) while attachment of rib care, spinous processes and vertical articular facets limits flexion and extension as well as lateral flexion
lumbar vertebrae
5, largest body, holds largest weight,

-movement-articular processes are vertical and facets are sagittally oriented facilitates flexion and extension, but prohibits rotation
transverse foramen
allow for the passage of the vertebral arteries and their accompanying veins
atlas
C1, has no body or spinous process, paired lateral masses, widest of the vertebrae, provides increased leverage for attached muscles, no IV disc separating C1 and C2
axis
C2, strongest of the cervical vertebrae, allows for rotation of C1 (no), has blunt tooth-like dens, has large bifid spinous process
IV discs
provide strong attachments between the vertebral bodies, account for 25% of height of column, serve as shock absorbers, consists of annulus fibrosis and nucleus pulposus, differences in shape accounts for the curvature of the vertebral column
annulus fibrosus
composed of concentric lamellae of fibrocartilage, form outer fibrous circumference of IV disc, vascular
nucleus pulposus
gelatinous central mass, semifluid responsible for flexibility and resilience of IV disc, shock absorbers of IV discs, posteriorly placed, avascular
anterior longitudinal ligament
covers and connects the anterolateral aspects of the vertebral bodies and IV discs, prevents hyperextension of the vertebral column, maintaining stability of the joints between the vertebral bodies
posterior longitudinal ligament
narrower and weaker than anterior, runs within the vertebral canal, bridges fat and vessels, resists hyperflexion, helps prevent posterior herniation of the nucleus pulposus, has lots of nocicpetive (pain) nerve endings
ligamenta flava
join laminae of adjacent vertebral arches, resist separation of the vertebral lamina by arresting abrupt flexion of the vertebral column
range of movement of the vertebral column is limited by
thickness, elasticity, and compressibility of the IV discs, shape and orientation of the zygapophysial joings, tension of the joint capsules of the zygapophysial joints, resistance of the back muscles and ligaments, attachment of the thoracic cage and bulk of surrounding tissue
movement in vertebral regions
-cervical-rotation and flexion and extension

-thoracic-rotation

-lumbar-flexion and extension
primary curvatures of vertebrae
thoracic and sacral curvatures, curve anteriorly, develop during the fetal period in relation to the fetal position, retained throughout life
secondary curvatures of vertebrae
cervical and lumbar, curve posteriorly, result from extension from the fetal position, do not become obvious until infancy, develops when a child lifts head and sits up and walks (respectively)
innervation of vertebral column
meningeal branches of the spinal nerves, branches that arise from the mixed spinal nerve (before the dorsal and ventral rami), supply periosteum, annuli fibrosi and anterior longitudinal ligament (pain receptors)
medulla oblongata
beginning structure of the spinal cord
medullary cone
tapering inferior end of the spinal cord, may terminate as high as T12 or as low as L3
cervical enlargement of the spinal cord
extends from the C4-T1 segments of the spinal cord, most of the anterior rami of the spinal nerves arising from it form the brachial plexus of nerves that innervates the upper limbs
lumbosacral enlargement
extends from T11 to S1, inferior to which the cord continues to diminish as the medullary cone, the anterior rami of the spinal nerves from here make up the lumbar and sacral plexus of nerves that innervate the lower limbs
cauda equina
loose bundle of spinal nerve roots arising from the lumbosacral enlargement and the medullary cone and coursing with the lumbar cistern of CSF caudal to the termination of the spinal cord
spinal dura mater (characteristics and innervation)
composed mainly of tough fibrous with some elastic tissue, outermost covering, innervated by afferent and sympathetic recurrent meningeal nerves, afferent fibers supply pain receptors involved in referred apin
epidural space
separate the spinal dura mater from the walls of the vertebral canal, filled with epidural fat
spinal arachnoid mater
delicate, avascular membrane composed of fibrous and elastic tissue, encloses CSF filled subarachnoid space containing the spinal cord
subarachnoid space
separate arachnoid space from pia mater, filled with CSF
spinal pia mater
innermost covering membrane of the spinal cord, consists of flattened cells with long, equally flattened processes that closely follow all the surface features of the spinal cord, also covers the roots of the spinal nerves and the spinal blood vessels, continues inferiorly as the terminal filum
denticulate ligaments
suspend spinal cord, a fibrous sheet of pia mater
spinal cord arteries
branches of the vertebral, ascending cervical, deep cervical, intercostal, lumbar, and lateral sacral arteries,

-longitudinally-anterior spinal artery and paired posterior spinal arteries, only supply the short superior part of the spinal cord

-need help from segmental medullary and radicular arteries running along the spinal nerve roots

-Anterior spinal artery doesn’t have enough flow to supply the entire length of the cord. Need segmental contributions from anterior radicular arteries to boost flow. Blockage causes a syndrome known as the anterior spinal artery syndrome
anterior and posterior segmental medullary arteries
derived from spinal branches, located where the need for a good bloods supply to the spinal cord is needed (the cervical and lumbosacral enlargement)
great anterior segmental meduallary artery
reinforces the circulation to two thirds of the spinal cord, including the lumbosacral enlargement
posterior and anterior radicular arteries
supply the posterior and anterior roots of the spinal nerves, small and supply only the nerve roots, assist with the supply of superficial parts of the gray matter
veins of the spinal cord
similar to the arteries of the spinal cord, three anterior and three posterior spinal veins, drained by up to 12 anterior and posterior medullary and radicular veins, join the internal vertebral venous plexus
cervical joints
are in a modified horizontal plane and allow movement in all 3 axes
thoracic joints
are in the frontal plane and limit flexion and extension
lumbar joints
are in the sagittal plane and limit rotation and lateral bending
Spinal nerves in the cervical region
exit above the vertebra with the same number
Spinal nerves in the thoracic, lumbar and sacral levels
exit below the vertebra with the same number
Thoracolumbar fascia
the aponeurosis is divided into three layers and attaches to or surrounds many muscles acting like a girdle for the back muscles and aiding in stabilization of the vertebral column
Venous plexus
allows for contribution from venous drainage and possible communication of venous drainage in spinal cord and brain