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194 Cards in this Set

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Characteristics of Nocardia
Gram +, branching rods
Aerobic
Slow growing
Star-shaped colonies
Important species of Nocardia
N. asteroides
N. brasiliensis
N. otitidis-caviarum
Sources of Nocardia
normally present in soil
Transmission of Nocardia
Wound contamination
Inhalation
Ingestion
Fomites
Virulence factors of Nocardia
Thick peptidoglycan layer
Mycolic acid, nocardial lipid & superoxide dismutase production
Clinical signs of Nocardial infection in dogs/cats
Pyogranuloma w/ draining tract
pyrexia
coughing
emaciation
Lesions caused by Nocardial infection in dogs/cats
Necrotizing pneumonia
pleural effusion
pyothorax
osteomyelitis
encephalitis
Clinical signs of Nocardial infections in Bo/Sw
Masitis
Abortion
Lesions of Nocardial infection in Bo/Sw
Purulent granulomas
nodules, non-encapsulated
Immunity against Nocardia
CMI most important
Diagnosis of Nocardia infection
I&I
Gram, modified Ziehl-neelsen stain
Rule outs of Nocardial infection
Actinomycosis
blastomycosis
Treatment of Nocardial infections
Sulfonamides
Ampicillin
Cull animals w/ nocardial mastitis , b/c no effective treatment
Penicillin doesn't work
Characteristics of Dermatophilus
Gram + filamentous rods
forms zoospores
commensal/obligate skin parasite
Zoospore formation by Dermatophilus
Occurs when infected skin becomes wet, CO2 tension increases. Motile zoospores penetrate deeper into skin
Transmission of Dermatophilus
Direct contact
insects
fomites
Cycle of dermatophilus lesions
infection causes inflammation & serous exudate, new layers of epidermis form & cycle restarts.
Important species of Dermatophilus
D. congolensis
Diseases in LA caused by Dermatophilus
Cutaneous streptothricosis
exudative dermatitis
(rain rot/scald)
Diseases in sheep caused by Dermatophilus
Strawberry foot
Proliferative dermatitis
lumpy wool disease
Immunity against Dermatophilus
Humoral & CMI both involved
No vaccines available
Delayed hypersensitivity seen
Lesions caused by Dermatophilus infection
Paintbrush lesions
Diagnosis of Dermatophilus infection
Smear & gram stain of scab
-Railroad tract appearance
I&I, incubation in candle jar=lower CO2 tension
Treatment of Dermatophilus infection
Remove scabs-treat locally w/iodine/copper sulfate
Penicillin & streptomycin in 1, large dose
Prevention of Dermatophilus infection
provide housing out of the rain & away from thorns
Characteristics of Rhodococcus
Gram + coccobacillus
Sources of Rhodococcus
Normally in soil
Important species of Rhodococcus
R. equi
Species affected by Rhodococcus
horses, pigs, cattle
Resistance of Rhodococcus
resistant to oxalic acid & H2SO4
Transmission of R equi
inhalation
Diseases caused by R equi
Bronchopneumonia & colitis in foals 2-6 months old
60-80% mortality rate
lesions of R equi in foals
purulent, bilateral bronchopneumonia
Lymphadenitis (in mesenteric nodes
Ulcerative enteritis
Virulence attributes of R equi
Thick polysaccharide capsule
Facultative intracellular parasite
Pili (for colonization)
Plasmid that produces VapA-virulence associated protein
VapA
virulence factor produced by large plasmid of R equi
only expressed @ lower body temperature of foals
Immunity against R equi
CMI most important (intracellular parasites)
Antibodies (from colostrum) are protective
Diagnosis of R equi infection
I&I
History & signs
Rule outs for R equi diagnosis
Strangles (S. equi)
Treatment of R equi infection
Antimicrobial therapy indicated by antibiogram, for 3-4 weeks
(erythromycin & rifampin, often best, gentamicin or erythromycin may also work)
Characteristics of Mycobacterium
Gram + bacillus
aerobic
non-motile
very slow growth in culture
Resistance of Mycobacterium
resistant to many disinfectants: NaOH & HCL
suseptible to phenolics
Virulence factors of Mycobacterium
Can survive & replicate in macrophages
Cord factor
Sulfatides
Superoxide dismutase
Mycobactins & exochalins
Sulfolipids
Role of cord factor in Mycobacterium virulence
inhibits chemotaxis
leukotoxic
Role of sulfatides in Mycobacterium virulence
(glycolipids)
MAY inhibit phagolysozome formation
Role of mycobactins & exochalins in Mycobacterium virulence
effective in iron acquisition
Role of sulfolipids in Mycobacterium virulence
prevent phagolysosomal fusion
Immunity against Mycobacterium
CMI most important
circulating antibodies-don't protect, but may help bacteria indentify host
Factors predisposing to Mycobacterium infection
Stress
crowding
genetics
Source of Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium) infection
via inhalation
ingestion
wound infection
congenitally:rare
Diseases caused by Mycobacterium
Tuberculosis
Johne's Disease
Cause of Johne's Disease
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
Control of mycobacterium
test & slaughter
disinfect premises
-Cresylic compounds
-Orthophenylphenate
Species that get Johne's Disease
Cattle
Sheep
Goats
Llamas
Usually affects younger animals 2-3yo
Transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
ingestion of contaminated feed/water
Characteristics of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
exist around the world
can survive months in soil (both acidic & alkali)
Very long incubation period (years)
Lesions of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
Thickened/sclerotic intestinal wall
Associated lympn node enlargement
Clinical signs of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
Unthriftiness/emaciation
Chronic, persistent diarrhea
Muscle atrophy
Diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
history & signs
acid-fast stain of fecal smear
Rectal scraping/biopsy
large clumps of intracellular bacilli
I&I
DNA probes
Immunity against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
CMI more important (intracellular) than humoral
Control of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
Test & slaughter
Adults (possible carriers) to slaughter only
replacements from Johne's free farms
AI from Johne's negative bulls
Characteristics of Brucella
Gram negative coccobacillus
Aerobic
Facultative intracellular parasite
Important species of Brucella
B. abortus
B. canis
B. melitensis
B. suis
B. ovis
Brucella species affecting Cattle
B. abortus
-B. melitensis
-B. suis
Brucella species affecting horses
B. abortus
-B. suis
Brucella species affecting dogs
B. canis
-B. abortus
-B. melitinsis
-B. suis
Brucella species affecting sheep & goats
B. melitensis
(B. ovis also in sheep)
-B. abortus
Transmission of B. abortus
Ingestion
Venereal
Intramammary/congenital
Pathogenesis of B. abortus
Once bacteria penetrate mucus membranes, they are engulfed by phagocytes, reproduce & leave, causing bacteremia-disseminate throughout the body
Diseases caused by B. abortus
Abortion, usually only occurs in first pregnancy after infection
Signs of B. abortus
Thickened placenta (causing retention)
edematous fetus (blood tinged fluid in body cavities)
Immunity against B. abortus
CMI most important
Humoral doesn't do much
Diagnosis of B. abortus infection
Agglutination test-IgM & IgG
Card/Rose Bengal test
Rivanol/mercaptoethanol test
ELISA test
Fluorescence polarization assay
Agglutination test for B. abortus infection
test for IgM & IgG for screening purposes only
affected by vaccination, ongoing infection
Card/Rose Bengal test for B. abortus infection
Test for IgM
Fast & very sensitive
few false negatives
Rivanol/mercaptoethanol tests for B. abortus infection
Prescribed test for international trade
Can distinguish between vaccine and infection
ELISA test for B. abortus infection
Test for international trade
Very sensitive & specific
Fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) for B. abortus infection
Easy & sensitive, can be used in the field
stain 50kD antigens & read with polarization analyzer
has to be calibrated with USDA
Vaccinations for B. abortus
RB51
Strain 19
McEwen 45/20
RB51
Attenuated live virus
(no LPS)
must vaccinate 4-12 months old
provides 85-90% protection
easy to differentiate from infective strains
Strain 19
Viable smooth strain
still mildly pathogenic, can also cause abortions
must vaccinate 4-12 months old
provides 65-70% protection
McEwen 45/20
Inactivated, adjevanated rough strain
requires 2 doses 6-12 weeks apart
Treatment of B. abortus infection
No treatment available, b/c intracellular parasite
Transmission of B. canis
Ingestion-#1
venereal-infected males shed intermittently
Diseases caused by B. canis
Abortion in last trimester
lymphadenitis & splenitis
infertility
Sick/stillborn puppies
Epididymitis
testicular atrophy
Immunity against B. canis
CMI protective
Humoral response greatest during bacteremia stage of infection
Diagnosis of B. canis infection
signs
culture of blood, bone marrow or lymph nodes
serologic tests
Serologic tests for confirming B. canis infection
immunodiffusion-best
Card
Agglutination
mercaptoethanol
complement fixation
false positives possible, titers difficult to interpret
Vaccination against B. canis
NONE available
Treatment of B. canis
Euthanasia of infected animals-best
neuter and long term antibiotic therapy (streptomycin, aminoglycosides, doxycycline)
Importance of B. melitensis
a potential biowarfare agent
BSL3 agent
No human vaccines available, & very low doses are infective
Species affected by B. melitensis
Mainly sheep & goats
less common cattle pigs, dogs, humans
Transmission of B. melitensis
Ingestion of contaminated food, water or milk
Diseases caused by B. melitensis infection
Late term abortion
lameness
mastitis
orchitis
Immunity against B. melitensis
Protective immunity develops after vaccine or infection, will eventually clear infection
Diagnosis of B. melitensis infection
Signs
Direct culture
Serologic tests
Vaccinations against B. melitensis
Strain Rev 1
Strain 53H38
Strain Rev 1
a live avirulent strain that reduces abortions and reduces shedding of B. melitensis by infected animals
Strain 53H38
An inactivated strain
causes greater antibody response than strain Rev 1
Transmission of B. suis
Ingestion of contaminated feed/water
Diseases caused by B. suis infection
abortion
metritis
spondylitis
lameness
paralysis
Immunity against B. suis
CMI=most important short-lived, will get sick again if exposed after infection has been cleared, but abortions don't reoccur
Diagnosis of B. suis infection
signs
direct culture
agglutination test-though not that effective
Vaccination against B. suis
NO vaccines available
Control of B. suis
eradicate entire infected herd
B. suis free herds for replacement stock
Transmission of B. ovis
probably venereal
Diseases caused by B. ovis
Epididymitis
Abortion
Immunity against B. ovis
CMI most important
Diagnosis of B. ovis
Clinical signs
Culture of semen
Serologic tests
Vaccination for B. ovis
B. melitensis Rev 1 vaccine
"autogenous saline in oil adjuvant bacterins"
Zoonotic potential of Brucella
B. melitensis greatest threat
B. suis>B. abortus>B. canis
Highly infectious
Treatment of Brucella in humans
Tetracyclines
Rifampicin
Gentamycin
used in combination therapies
Characteristics of Campylobacter
Gram negative
curved rods
motile
Microaerophilic
Important species of Campylobacter
C. fetus subspecies fetus
C. fetus subspecies venerealis
C. jejuni
Transmission of C. fetus subspecies fetus
Ingestion
Species affected by C. fetus subspecies fetus
Sheep
Cattle(rare)
human (rare)
Diseases caused by C. fetus subspecies fetus infection
Abortion
Placentitis
Metritis
Sources of C. fetus subspecies fetus
assymptomatic carriers
birds
Virulence of C. fetus subspecies fetus
S-layer protien antigens=block antibody/complement binding
O antigens-LPS
Diagnosis of C. fetus subspecies fetus infection
I&I
fluorescent antibody staining
Lesions caused by C. fetus subspecies fetus infection
Placental edema
fetal hepatic necrosis
bloody fetal body fluids
Immunity against C. fetus subspecies fetus
IgA, IgG & IgM all protective
Vaccination against C. fetus subspecies fetus
Have serotype specific vaccines
Must include both S-layer protein antigens (1 & 5)
Characteristics of C. fetus subspecies venerealis
Obligate parasite of bovine genital tract
Transmission of C. fetus subspecies venerealis
venereal
young bulls transient carriers
old bulls permanent carriers
Pathogenesis of C. fetus subspecies venerealis
Infection passed from bull
ascends female genital tract
Diseases caused by C. fetus subspecies venerealis infection
"bovine genital campylobacteriosis"
endometritis soon after breeding
decreased conception rate
Abortion/neonatal death
Virulence of C. fetus subspecies venerealis
S-layer-
block antibody & complement binding
Can vary antigens as host adjusts
Immunity against C. fetus subspecies venerealis
antibodies against O-antigen (LPS)
antibodies against S-layer, have to catch up with changing bacterial antigens
Prevention of C. fetus subspecies venerealis infection
vaccination
Artificial insemination
Diagnosis of C. fetus subspecies venerealis infection
I&I (in decreased O2)
Fluorescent antibody staining
PCR/DNA probes
Characteristics of C. jejuni/C. coli
normally present in intestinal tracts
Highly infectious
Diseases caused by C. jejuni/C. coli
Enteritis
(mastitis, abortion)
Signs of C. jejuni/C. coli infection
Bloody feces
fever
abdominal pain
Diagnosis of C. jejuni/C. coli infection
History & signs
I&I (@ high temp)
PCR
Treatment of Campylobacter infection
usually not treated=usually selflimiting
Supportive care
Erythromycin, tetracyclines
Control of Campylobacter
meticulous hygiene
Cull carriers
Importance of C. upsaliensis
in dogs &cats
may be zoonotic
Cytolethal Distending Toxin (CDT)
Public health concerns of Campylobacter
Highly infectious
zoonotic potential
major cause of infectious food poisoning
Diseases caused by Helicobacter infection
gastritis
enteritis
ulcers
Many dogs, cats, & people
Treatment of Helicobacter infection
Bismuth sub salicylate (pepto) + metronidazole + tetracycline/amoxicillin
Signs of Helicobacter infection
Vomiting
diarrhea
weight loss
abdominal pain
Important species of Helicobacter
H. hepaticus & H. bilis
only pathogenic species cause hepatitis
Characteristics of Arcobacter
microaerophilic
motile
slow growth in culture
Important species of Arcobacter
A. cryaerophilus
A. butsleri
A. skirrowii
Diseases caused by Arcobacter
Enteritis
abortion
mastitis
Identification of Arcobacter
PCR
rDNA sequence
Must differentiate from Campylobacter
Characteristics of Lawsonia intracellularis
obligate intracellular parasite
only cultured in cell cultures
Diseases caused by Lawsonia intracellularis
Proliferative intestinal enteropathy
affects young pigs
Signs of Lawsonia intracellularis infection
Acute hemorrhagic entropathy & diarrhea
Chronic mild diarrhea=reduced growth
Diagnosis of Lawsonia intracellularis infection
I&I-cell culture
Fluorescent antibody assay
histopathy of intestines
ELISA
Control of Lawsonia intracellularis
Screen replacement animal
Vaccine-live attenuated
Antibiotics in feed
Characteristics of Leptospira infection
Gram negative spirochete
wound around axial filament
strict aerobe
Taxonomic groups of Leptospira
L. interrogans-pathogenic
L. biflexa-non-pathogenic
Sources of Leptospira
Will survive in nephric tubules until excreted into environment
Virulence of Leptospira
no one knows
LPS
Sphingomyelinase-hemolysin
cytotoxins
Diseases caused by Leptospira
Abortion
infertility
agalactia
hemoglobinuria
hemorrhagic/chronic icterus/uremia in dogs
Signs of Leptospira infection
fever
inappetence
malaise
headache
Pathogenesis of Leptospira
enter through wound 1-10 cells infective
Enter tissues
Begin replicating in liver-spread to lungs, brains & kidneys
Transmission of Leptospira
Wound contamination
Transplacental
milk
Semen
Immunity against Leptospira
Humoral Immunity important
LPS antibodies protective
Serovar specific antibodies-protect against one, but not others with consequental infection
Control of Leptospira
Multivalent bacterin vaccines-against locally prevalent serovars
bi-annually in pigs
annually in cattle
Diagnosis of Leptospira infection
Microscopic agglutination test (MAT)
Microtiter agglutination
ELISA
IHA
Darkfield microscopy of urine
I&I
Fluorescent antibody staining
Treatment of Leptospira infection
Penicillin G
Ampicillin
Streptomycin
Bacterin + antibiotics effective in outbreaks
Zoonotic potential of Leptospira
Weil's Disease
often from swimming in contaminated waters
Weil's Disease
Human Leptospira infection
Acutely febrile
jaundice
pulmonary distress
nephritis
death
Important genera of Spirochetales
Treponema
Borrelia
Brachyspira
Leptospira
Characteristics of the Spirochetales
Gram Negative (don't stain well)
Motile
Divide by transverse fission
Axial filament
Characteristics of Treponema
Gram Negative
Motile
Anaerobic
Important species of Treponema
T. brennaborense
T. paraluis-cuniculi
Disease caused by T. brennaborense
bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis
(Heel warts) in dairy cows
Lesions of T. brennaborense infection
moist, painful, strawberry lesions on skin
chronic raised wart-like lesion
resulting lameness
Control of T. brennaborense
Bacterin vaccine given every 6 months
Diagnosis of T. brennaborense
Signs
histopathology
Treatment of T. brennaborense infection
debridement
topical antibiotics (penicillin)
Diseases of T. paraluis-cuniculi
rabbit syphilis
Lesions of T. paraluis-cuniculi infection
vesicles/scabs on prepuce, vagina, perianal region
Diagnosis of T. paraluis-cuniculi infection
Darkfield microscopy
Treatment of T. paraluis-cuniculi infection
Penicillin
May cause a transient endotoxemia-from lysed gram - cells
Characteristics of Borrelia
Loosely coiled
microaerophilic
slow growth
Very motile
Important species of Borrelia
B. burgdorferi
B. theileri
B. anserina
B. coriaceae
B. vincenti
Disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi infection
Lyme disease
Characteristics of Borrelia burgdorferi
aerobic
fastidious=difficult to culture
low #'s to cause disease
Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi infection
Ixodes ticks are vectors
rodents are reservoir host
Pathogenesis of Borrelia burgdorferi
usually spring/fall
LPS causes inflammatory response
interleukin-1 causes fever, rash
Virulence of Borrelia burgdorferi
LPS
IL-1
can phase shift surface antigens to avoid host response
Species affected by Borrelia burgdorferi
Horses
Dogs
Cattle
Humans
Borrelia burgdorferi infection in horses
Fever, arthritis, cranky, back pain
may be passed to foals in utero & via milk
may be asymptomatic
Borrelia burgdorferi infection in dogs
Fever, inappetence, lethargy, sudden transient lameness w/ joint pain
CNS infection
May be asymptomatic
Borrelia burgdorferi infection in cattle
In utero infections may pass to calf causing fetal death
Progression of Borrelia burgdorferi infection
days-weeks=rash around bite
weeks-months=becomes systemic
-onset of clinical signs
years=arthritis, neurologic
Immunity against Borrelia burgdorferi
humoral
antibodies & complement kill bacteria
Diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infection
Signs & history
Direct staining of tissue/blood
I&I
PCR
IFA
ELISA
Treatment of Borrelia burgdorferi infection
tetracycline/amoxicillin for 10-14 days
Control of Borrelia burgdorferi
prevent exposure to ticks
vaccination-subunit vaccines