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35 Cards in this Set

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Define homeostasis
Homeostasis is maintaining the internal environment of the body at constant levels or between narrow limits.
What in the body is maintained between narrow limits?
temperature
blood pH
oxygen concentrations
carbon dioxide concentrations
blood glucose concentration
water/solute balance
THe internal environment varies very little. True/False
True. The internal environment is controlled and varies very little, despite large variations in the external environment.
What two systems play a major role in maintaining homeostasis?
The Nervous and Endocrine Systems
is homeostasis maintained by negative or positive feedback?
Negative Feedback
How does negative feedback work?
A rise in levels feeds back to decrease production and reduce the level.
A decrease in levels feeds back to increase production and raise the level.
Do small fluctuations cause a response to be triggered? (Ex. Do small fluctuations in body temperature cause responses to be triggered?)
No. Small fluctuations above and below the set point DO NOT cause a response.
When does negative feedback come into play then?
When the level rises significantly above the set point, it is then reduced by negative feedback.
What are the two parts of the nervous system?
Central nervous system &
Peripheral nervous system
What does the Central Nervous System consist of?
Brain & Spinal Cord
Define homeostasis
Homeostasis is maintaining the internal environment of the body at constant levels or between narrow limits.
What in the body is maintained between narrow limits?
temperature
blood pH
oxygen concentrations
carbon dioxide concentrations
blood glucose concentration
water/solute balance
THe internal environment varies very little. True/False
True. The internal environment is controlled and varies very little, despite large variations in the external environment.
What two systems play a major role in maintaining homeostasis?
The Nervous and Endocrine Systems
is homeostasis maintained by negative or positive feedback?
Negative Feedback
How does negative feedback work?
A rise in levels feeds back to decrease production and reduce the level.
A decrease in levels feeds back to increase production and raise the level.
Do small fluctuations cause a response to be triggered? (Ex. Do small fluctuations in body temperature cause responses to be triggered?)
No. Small fluctuations above and below the set point DO NOT cause a response.
When does negative feedback come into play then?
When the level rises significantly above the set point, it is then reduced by negative feedback.
What are the two parts of the nervous system?
Central nervous system &
Peripheral nervous system
What does the Central Nervous System consist of?
Brain & Spinal Cord
What does the peripheral nervous system consist of?
Peripheral nerves that connect all parts of the body to the central nervous system
When you feel cold, do skin arerioles become narrower or wider? As a result, is more blood or less blood brought?
Skine arterioles become narrower and they bring less blood.
What happens inside the body when you shiver?
Skeletal muscles do many small rapid contractions in order to generate heat.
When you're cold, the temperature of your skin falls. So is less heat or more heat lost from your skin to the environment?
Less heat. The temperature of your skin falls, so there is very little heat, therefore less heat is lost to the environment.
When you are feeling hot, do your skin arterioles become wider or narrower?
Wider, so more blood flows through the skin.
Is more heat or less heat lost to the environment when you're feeling hot?
More heat. The blood transfers heat from the core of your body to the skin. As a result the temperature of the skin rises, thus more heat is lost to the environment.
What do sweat glands do when your body is overheated?
Sweat glands secrete large amounts of sweat making the surface of the skin damp. Water evaporates from the damp skin and this has a cooling effect.
What happens when you have a high blood glucose level (in terms of insulin)?
Insulin stimulates the liver and muscle cells to absorb glucose from the blood and convert it to glycogen.
What happens to the glycogen after its been converted?
Granules of glycogen are stored in the cytoplasm. Other cells are stimulated to absorb glucose and use it in cell respiration istead of fat.
When the blood glucose levels are low, what do the alpha cells produce? Where are the alpha cells?
They produce glucagon.
Alpha cells are in the pancreatic islets
What does glucagon do when the blood glucose level is low?
Glucagon stimulates liver cells to break glycogen down into glucose and release the glucose into the blood.
What does the endocrine system consist of?
It consists of glands which release hormones that are transported in the blood.
Define excretion
Excretion is the removal from the body of the toxic waste products of metabolism.
What is the kidney's role in excretion?
Waste products of metabolism are carried from the body cells to the kidney by the blood system. Kidneys remove waste products from the blood and produce urine containing them.
What role do the kidneys play in homeostasis?
Kidneys help to keep the water and salt content of the blood and tissue fluid constant. Kidneys have a role in homeostasis by varying the composition and volume of urine.