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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the paths to cancer?
1. Loss control of mitotic cycle (tumor)
2. Invasion of surounding tissue (malignancy)
what disease is connected with defective nucleotide base excision repair?
What disease is associated with defective mismatch repair?
heredity non polyposis colon cancer
What disease is associated with defective double strand break repair?
Familial breast cancer
A thymine dimer is recognized by what protein?
XP-C and 23B
What does the XP-C and 23B complex recruit and what does it do?
TFII-H has helicase activity i.e opens dsDNA
Following XPII-H, what comes and further opens and stabalizes the dsDNA?
XP-G and RPA
What XP genes act as endonucleases?
XP-G and XP-F
Is XP characterized by Locus Heterogeneity?
Yes -->mutations in 7 genes
Cancer is causes by SOMATIC muations in genes that control what?
1. cell proliferation
2. programmed cell death
3. genome stability
What are some gentoxic mechanisms?
1. ionization radiation
2. chemical carcinogens
What are some non-genotoxic mechanisms?
1. alcohol
2. hormones
other tumor promoters
Is malignant transformation a multistep process?
What is an example of Self-sufficiency of growth signals?
Ras mutation
What is an example of an insensitivity to anti-growth signals?
Turn off Rb
What is an example of evading apoptosis?
IGF production
What is an example of limit-less replicative potential?
turn on telomerase
What is an example of sustained angiogenesis?
produce VEGF inducer
What is an example of uncontrolled tissue invasion and metastasis?
overactive E-Cadherin
Which cancer genes are recessive at the cellular level?
tumor supressors genes: require mutation on both alleles
Which cancer genes are dominant at the cellular level?
Oncogenes: mutation in 1 allele is enough
What are some tumor suppressor cancers?
1. Rb-loss of RB
2. FAP- loss of APC
4. Familial Breast Cancer- BRCA 1|BRCA 2
5. liFraumeni Syndrome- p53 loss
What cancers have a high contribution of hereditary factors?
1. prostate
2. colorectal
3. breast
In retinoblastoma we have an insensitivity to anti-growth signals i.e loss of Rb inhibition on E2F. How is heterozygosity lost?
1. mitotic non-disjunction
2. mitotic recombination
*@ chromosome 13
How is Rb that is inherited distinguished from non inherited Rb?
inherited has bilateral tumors present
What is the the etiology of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis?
1. Growth Factor (WNT) causes the APC to fall off from its inhibition from Beta-Catenin that turns on TCF causing Proliferation
2. In FAP, APC is mutated and unable to destroy Beta-Catenin
What malignant transformations does FAP have?
1. Self Sufficieny (no need for WNT)
2. Insensitivity to Anti-growth signals (bad APC)
Which has an increase in the number of polyps. FAP or HNPCC?
What is the etiology of HNPCC?
1. Typically, MSH2/6 recognize mismatch repairs and MLH1 and PMS endonuclease errors
2. HNPCC has mutations in these genes
What malignant transformations does HNPCC have?
Genomic Instability (bad MSH)
What is LiFraumeni Syndrome?
the development of many cancers
What is the the etiology of LiFraumeni Syndrome?
Loss of p53 which cause increase in cell proliferation and loss of apoptosis potential
What is a dominat negative mutation in p53?
1. p53 is a tetramer
2. Loss function in 1 subunit causes the whole protein to not work
What does p53 activate?
1. Bax --> Apoptosis
2. p21 --> CDK inhibitors --> stop G1
What malignant transformations does LiFraumeni Syndrome have?
1. Genomic Instability: (DNA damage accumilation)
2. Insensitivity to Anti-growth signals: (CDK inhibitor (p27) loss)
3. Evasion of Apoptosis: (no Bax)
What is the etiology of Familial Breast Cancer?
1. mutations in either BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 that normally fix Double stranded breaks in DNA
Who does BRCA 2 derived breast cancer affect?
Males and females
What malignant transformations does Familial Breast Cancer have?
Genomic Instability ( bad BRCA1/2)
Inablity for RAD to look for homologous DNA on sister chromatids due to mutations in BRCA1/2 can lead to what?
Other mutations will arise b/c other mechanism will try to fix the double stranded break and cause:
1. base pair loss
2. translocations