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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Following stress and injury to a normal cell, this Reversible Cell Injury can lead to:
1. Normal Cell
2. Adaptation
3. Irreversible cell injury
What are the different ways cells adapt after injury?
4. Metaplasia
What happens after irreversible injury?
Severity of injury is dependant on what?
1. mechanism
2. intensity
3. duration
What is etiology?
the mechanism of injury
What is the mechanisms of REVERSIBLE cell injury?
Low ATP by inhibition/disruption of aerobic respiration
Low ATP causes
1. Cellular swelling
2. acidosis
3. decreased protein synthesis
What is hydropic change?
Swelling, pale cytoplasm in cells due to faulty Na+ pump
What happens when the cell membrane is comprimised due to injury?
Irreversible cell injury
What is the most prominent effector of cell death?
Necrosis as a result of increased Ca++ influx and the breakdown of mitochondria releasing free radicals
How does the membrane get damaged during injury?
free radicals and lysosome breakdown
What are some examples of free radicals?
hydroxyl radical
What is cell adaptation?
An alternative to necrosis due to a less severe but persistant stress
What is Hypertrophy?
increase in SIZE after injury: muscle
What is Hyperplasia?
Increase in NUMBER after injury:liver
What is Atrophy?
decrease in SIZE: muscle denervation of muscle
What is Metaplasia?
change in cell type/ tissue to a more efficient one: in smokers
What is Dysplasia?
disordered proliferation: change in size, shape and organization of tissue
Which type of cell death causes inflamation?
What is Autolysis?
Necrosis as a result of the cell's own enzymes
What is heterolysis?
neutrophils cause necrosis
What are the types of necrosis?
1. Coagulative
2. Liquefactive
3. Pancreatic fat
4. non-enzymatic fat
5. Caseous
6. Glummatous
7. gangrenous
8. fibrinoid
Describe COAGULATIVE necrosis?
due to ischemia, tissue morphology preserved, protein denaturation
Describe LIQUEFACTIVE necrosis?
enzymatic degredation, amorphous mass, *brain lesion
Describe ENZYMATIC necrosis?
@pancreas, active lipase destruction, dead fat cells look blue
Describe NON-ENZYMATIC necrosis?
trauma to adipose tissue
Describe CASEOUS necrosis?
crumbled cheese-like found in center of granulomas w/ pink color
*TB, fungal infections
Describe GLUMMATOUS necrosis?
firm and rubbery,PINK, found in granulomas,*syphilis
Describe COAGULATIVE necrosis?
dry: black, dry, shriveled,*ischemia
wet:bacteria,*bowl ischemia
Gas: anerobic bacteria
Describe FIBRINOID necrosis?
pink homogenous material in BLOOD VESSELS, malig. hypertension, immune disorders
What is ACUTE steatosis (fatty change)?
parenchyma, MICROvessicular, triglycerides,*preeclampsia, Reye synd.
What is CHRONIC steatosis (fatty change)?
parenchyma, MACROvessicular:large lipid droplet, *diabetes, mal nutrition, obesity
How do you produce a fatty liver i.e increase the storage of tryglycerides?
1. Diabetes/starvation
4.protein malnutrition
What is an increase in adipocytes in parenchyma?
Fatty infiltration
What carbohydrate is involved in storage disease?
Glycogen, *diabetes
What are some endogenous pigments that can lead to storage disease?
heme-derived, melanin, lipofuscin, copper
What is hemosiderosis?
excess iron is stored in cells
What is hemochromatosis?
excess iron that is absorbed and deposited in tissues causing damage
What is a Prussian Test
test for iron deposits...turns blue
What unique substance is produced by malaria as it breaks down Hemeglobin?
What toxic product is created when hemoglobin is broken down in the liver,spleen, or bone marrow?
Bilirubin accumulates in the brain
What is lipofuscin
brown pigment accumilated in a cell because its old
What occurs in Wilson's disease
accumulation of copper-->toxic
What is edema?
Fluid that is not returned to the capillary bed by the oncotic pressure which is then picked up by lymphatics
What causes edema?
hydrostatic pressure increased, oncotic pressure decreased, blocked lymphatics, inflamation
What is transudate and exudate?
1.transudate is non-inflamatory edema
2.Exudate....inflamatory edema
What is anasarca?
extreeme systemic edema..congestive heart failure or hypoproteinemia
Deposition of calcium in injured tissue is?
Dystrophic calcification
Deposition of calcium in normal tissue?
Metastatic calcification
What is anthracosis?
macrophages consum particles in lungs
What is GLUMMATOUS necrosis?
Pink, rubbery, firm granuloma *syphilis
What is fibrinoid necrosis?
areas of pink homogenous material in blood vessel walls