Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Alcohol, solvents and temazepam are examples of this type of drug.
Antibodies stay in your blood for a long time. They are ready to fight more of the same pathogens and so make you ...?
Asexual reproduction produces …?
Genetically identical individuals called clones.
Carbohydrates like glucose give us...?
Chromosomes are made up of a very long thread of a chemical called …?
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
Clones have all their genes from …?
One parent.
DNA contains four bases known as …?
A, T, C and G.
DNA controls the production of …?
Give three examples of beneficial drugs.
Antibiotics, painkillers, insulin.
Give two examples of hard drugs.
Heroin and cocaine.
Give two ways in which a bacterial cell is different from an animal cell.
A bacterial cell has a cell wall and the genes are not inside a proper nucleus.
Gradual cooling of the body to a dangerously low temperature is called ...?
How are leaves adapted to absorb sunlight?
They have a large surface area and lots of chloroplasts in the palisade layer.
How are leaves adapted to gas exchange?
They are thin and allow gases to diffuse in and out through pores called stomata.
How can long and short sight be corrected?
By lenses in glasses, contact lenses or corneal surgery.
How do mutations affect DNA?
They change the base sequence.
How do stimulants and depressants affect the nervous system?
By affecting transmission of nerve impulses across synapses.
How does carbon dioxide enter the leaf cells?
By diffusion.
How does the skin react when it is cold.
Blood vessels at the skin surface close up. Less blood flows to the skin surface. Sweating stops. The hairs stand up trapping air and cutting down heat loss.
How does the skin react when it is hot?
Blood vessels at the skin surface widen and more blood gets to the surface. Sweating increases.
How does your body form a physical barrier to pathogens?
The skin acts as a barrier, mucus in the air passages traps pathogens, the blood clots and forms a scab.
How have some disease microbes become resistant to antibiotics?
As a result of a gene mutation.
How is the upper epidermis adapted for efficient photosynthesis?
It is transparent.
If we don’t have enough of each type of vitamin and mineral in our diet we can get a ...?
Deficiency disease.
In sexual reproduction half the genes come from …?
Each parent.
In the UK, drugs are legally classified. Which group is the most dangerous, with the heaviest penalties?
Class A drugs.
In which type of variation are there clear-cut differences with no in-betweens?
Discontinuous variation.
Insulin lowers blood sugar by changing glucose to ...?
Leaf veins supply water and also give ...?
Name five of the body's control systems that rely on negative feedback
Control of blood sugar, water content, pH, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration.
Name four toxins substances found in tobacco smoke.
Nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide and particulates.
Name four ways in which pathogens can be spread.
In the air, by touching, in food and water, by animals.
Name some human characteristics thought to result from both environmental and inherited factors.
Intelligence, body mass, height.
Name three adaptations that neurones have to help them carry out their function.
Long length, insulating sheath, branched endings.
Name three key characteristics of reflex actions.
Fast, automatic, protective.
Name two body disorders that you have studied.
Cancer and diabetes.
Name two effects of tar from cigarette smoke.
Irritation to lungs, cancer triggered ed by mutation.
Nicotine, caffeine and ecstasy are examples of this type of drug.
On what factors does the dosage of insulin used to treat diabetes depend?
Diet and activity.
Proteins are needed for...?
Growth and repair of cells.
Separate regions of chromosomes are called …?
Term describing the passage of digested food through the gut wall into the blood.
The part of our gut that contains most acid.
The stomach.
These are not really proper cells. They are made up of a few genes wrapped in a protein coat.
These are sometimes put into our foods as preservatives, flavourings or colourings.
Food additives.
These are used as a store of energy and for insulation.
These give the small intestine a greater surface area for absorption.
Villi/folded inner surface and microvilli.
These two components make up the central nervous system.
The brain and spinal cord.
These two structures focus light rays onto the retina.
The cornea and lens.
This helps our gut muscles to push our foods along.
This splits up fats into small droplets (emulsifies it).
Too much of this type of fat can narrow our blood vessels.
Saturated fat.
Under what circumstances will a recessive allele show itself?
In the homozygous state.
Unused genes in a cell are …?
Switched off.
What are antibodies?
Chemicals (proteins) made by your body that stick to the antigens on the surface of microbes.
What are chromosomes and what do they do?
Thread-like structures found in the nucleus. Each chromosome is a long DNA molecule that carries the genes that control characteristics.
What are hallucinogens?
A group of drugs that can produce sensations of false identity and distort what is seen and heard.
What are nerve impulses?
Electrical signals that pass along nerve pathways made up of neurones.
What are the functions of rods and cones in the retina?
The rods work in dim light and the cones detect colour and details.
What are the long-term affects of alcohol abuse?
Damage to the liver (cirrhosis) and to the brain.
What are the most common type of performance-enhancing drug?
Anabolic steroids.
What are the short-term effects of alcohol on the body?
Alcohol is a depressant which slows down reactions. If taken, in excess, it can lead to lack of self-control, unconsciousness or even coma.
What are the symptoms of cystic fibrosis?
The production of thick, sticky mucus that can block the air passages and the tubes carrying digestive juices to the gut.
What are the three main shapes of bacteria?
Bacillus (rods), coccus (spheres), spirillum (spirals).
What are the three main types of microbes?
Bacteria, fungi and viruses.
What are the two main causes of variation?
Heredity (genes) and the environment.
What are the upper and lower layers of leaf cells called?
What are your five senses?
Touch, taste, smell, hearing and sight.
What causes many of the symptoms of diseases caused by microorganisms?
The toxins produced.
What do plants need to carry out photosynthesis?
Chlorophyll, carbon dioxide, water and sunlight.
What do we call a change in the environment that can be detected by an organism?
A stimulus.
What do we call a diet with enough food and a variety of nutrients?
A balanced diet.
What does homeostasis mean?
Keeping conditions constant inside the body.
What does homozygous mean?
Both alleles are the same.
What does warm-blooded mean?
Keeping the body temperature constant all the time.
What factors can contribute to anorexia?
Poor self-esteem, desire for perfection, poor self-image.
What gland in the brain instructs the testes and ovaries to produce the sex hormones during puberty?
The pituitary gland.
What happens if we take in too much food energy or use too little energy up in exercise?
We put on weight/become fat.
What happens to your ciliary muscles, suspensory ligaments and lens when you view a near object?
The ciliary muscles contract, the suspensory ligaments slacken and the lens gets fatter.
What is a mutation?
A change in a gene or a chromosome affecting the sequence of bases that can cause a change in a characteristic.
What is a vaccine?
A dead or harmless form of the disease microbe that can produce an immune response.
What is a variegated leaf?
A leaf with some parts white where chlorophyll is missing.
What is an antibiotic?
A chemical produced by a mould (fungus) that kills bacteria and can be used as a drug.
What is continuous variation?
When there is a range of differences that can be measured eg. height.
What is meant by a drug?
A chemical that affects the way in which your body works. Many drugs of abuse affect the way the nervous system works.
What is ovulation?
The release of an egg from the ovary.
What is the difference between an antiseptic and a disinfectant?
Antiseptics kill pathogens on living tissues and disinfectants kill pathogens on non-living surfaces.
What is the function of glucagon?
To raise blood sugar level by changing glycogen to glucose.
What is the gap between two neurones called?
A synapse.
What is the key adaptation of the spongy mesophyll layer?
Presence of air spaces.
What is the study of inheritance known as?
What is the word equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + water -(chlorophyll & light)-> glucose + oxygen
What prevents excessive water loss from the leaf surface?
Waxy cuticle on upper epidermis.
What sort of things can increase the rate of mutation?
Radiation (UV light, X-rays and gamma rays) and some chemicals.
What structures open and close stomata?
Guard cells.
When blood sugar is high special cells in the pancreas produce...?
Where is bile made and where is it stored?
Made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
Which hormones do boys and girls make at adolescence?
Testosterone in boys, oestrogen in girls.
Which organ monitors the blood temperature?
The brain.
Which sex chromosomes are found in a) the male? and b) the female?
A) male has XY b) female has XX.
Which three types of neurone make up a reflex arc?
Sensory neurone, relay neurone, motor neurone.
Which two systems let you detect changes and respond to them?
Nervous system and hormonal endocrine system.
Why are clinical trials carried out?
To determine whether a new drug or treatment is safe and effective.
Why do scientists disagree about the link between cannabis and addiction to hard drugs?
Lack of enough reliable data. Cannabis smoking may cause psychological problems to develop and some see it as a ‘gateway’ drug to more harmful substances.
Why is binocular vision important?
For judging distance.
Why is it important to maintain a constant body temperature?
To create optimum conditions for enzyme activity.
Why should pregnant women avoid smoking?
Carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. This can deprive the foetus of oxygen and lead to a low birth mass.
Write down the chain of events that happen when a receptor detects a stimulus.
You have two genes for each characteristic. What do we call different forms of the same gene?