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85 Cards in this Set

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Reasons for rapid growth of the colonial poulation
-Immigrants needing land
-High birth rate
-Low death rate
Why New England had a larger population than the southern colonies.
Because most of the settlers from the great migration came and stayed in New England
How the population explosion affected the economy of the colonies
Affected it by a growing economy and a rising standard of living
Redemptioners
Europeans or ppl in England who waited by the harbor and sold themselves to ship captains to get to colonies. When they reached land, they were auctioned off to the highest bidder. They worked to pay off their debt from 5-7 years.
The scotch-Irish were..
Scottish calvanists. British government wanted them to move to Ireland and later moved to America
The significance of scotch-irish
They contributed to the migration of the west having conflict with indians. Ignored british restriction and the contributing factor to the american revolution
The group that first came to Virginia in 1619
Africans
Lifestyles of the gentry in VA,MD,and NC.
Lived extravigant lifestyles. They lived in large houses and they were foxhunting, horseracing and parting. Made a lot of $ from tobacco, mostly English decent, and copied English aristocrats.
Lifestyle in Tidewater So. Carolina.
Blacks outnumbered whites
There were a number of wealthy white families, but the rest of the whites were the poorest among others in the colonies.
Why SC planters had less trouble with debt than planters in Chesapeke bay.
SC planters' crop was tobacco and it brought in a lot of money and fluxuated. Chesapeke Bay had indigo and rice which were stable.
Why there were more absentee plantation owners in Carolina than other colonies
Because in the summer it would be really hot and diseases were spread
The important port that was established in Carolina
Charleston
How the economy of So. Backcountry differed from Tidewater area
Backcountry had small farms-mixed substaining agriculture- making enough to survive. Tidewater had tobacco plantations which brought in a lot of money
Relations between So.Backcountry and Tidewater
They conflicted. Backcountry farmers were paying taxes and they weren't getting anything in return
Groups that dominated Pennsylvania
Quakers and Germans
Triangular trade
NE would bring rum to africa. Africa would bring slaves to the West Indies. Then West Indies would bring money and mollases back to NE.
How puritan lifestyle changed in the 18th century
They made a lot of money so they dressed nicer and focused more on material things
The most democratic society found in the colonies
New England
How life in cities compared to life in other colonies
more skilled, educated, higher standard of living and better informed with newspapers.
John Peter Zenger
A neswpaper man in NY who criticized the royal governor. He was charged with libel and sentenced to court. Jury found him not guilty and set a precident for freedom of press.
Factors that contributed to unity among colonies
- Common religion
- Shared experience
- English political tradition
- Shared English legal tradition
- Common language
Description of the stucture of colonial government
Royal governor

Legislature (bicameral)'
Upper- governors council- advised governor
Lower- elected assembly- control over money and governors salary
The conflict that faced royal governors
He was appointed by English government and was expected orders. Lived with colonists who had control over his money.
The branch of colonial government that gradually became more powerful and why
The lower house of the legislature because thay had control over the money
The class that usually controlled assemblies and how they sustained their power.
The upper class (rich). They sustained their power by passing laws, setting property qualifications for voting, and not giving representation to western areas
The sectional political conflicts that existed in the colonies (5)
- Money
- No representation
- No protection from indians
- No roads
- Tithe- Tax to support church in colony
The condition of religion in the colonies in 18th century
Religion was in decline. Nobodyworried about religion, they were more focused on material items
What an established chirch is, the established churches in the colonies, and where they were.
A church established or supported by government. The established churches were puritan/congregational churches. They were in the NE colonies except for RI
John Edwards
succesful preacher who lead the first revival in his own church. Forerunner of great awakening.
What the great awakening was and who initiated it
It was a widespread dramatic religious revival beginning in 1730. George whitefield initiated it and became of of the people to become a household name.
Old lights
Conservatives who stressed the importance of an educated clergy
New lights
Liberals that stressed emotional experience and liked the new style of preaching. New churches and denomination gave ppl more choice and founded new church
How the great awakening affected blacks in the colonies
Christianization of african americans. Growth of leadership class in black community. Idea of spiritual equality.
The group that was instrumental in the anti-slavery movement
Quakers
The enlightenment
Movement that stressed the importance of reason, logical thought turning away from superstition, and saw universe acting from natural laws.
The thing that happened in salem mass in 1692
Salem witch trials.last witchcraft persecution in colonies.
Newton's contribution to science
Laws of motion and universal gravitation. Saw universe like a perfect machine operating by fixed mathematical laws.
John Locke's human reason and learning
people were born with blank minds and they learned by taking info through senses.
John Locke's ideas about society and government (4).
life, liberty, property.
State of nature-no government
Contract w/ ruler: obey/protect
Can overthrow ruler if rights are violated.
The american that became an example of the idea of enlightenment
Ben Franklin. He had a lot of accomplishments which made him famous.
How education differed among the colonies
New England was the only area that required public schooling so they can read the bible.
Middle colonies had lower literacy rates than New England.
Southern colonies had the lowest literacy rates.
James Oglethorpe
The founder of Georgia
The reasons for the founding of GA colony (2)
To protect south carolina from spanish

A place for debtors to start over
Original rules for the GA colony
Size of landholdings limited

Prohibited slavery- Free small farmers

No rum or brandy
How the rules of GA colony worked out
Only a few debtors came.
South carolina came down with slaves and took over. The laws became banished and soon after that, GA became a royal colony
Where the french settlements were in north america
St. Lawrence river, southern great lakes, down the mississippi and ohio rivers, and down to New Orleans
How the french population differed from the English population in colonies by 1760
The French population was 60,000 people all of fighting age and indian alies and the English population was 1.5 million people
The colony where most of the fighting took place between the french and the english
Ny colony
Description of the fighting during king william and queen annes war, what treaty ended these wars and what the british gained.
settlers would go on raiding expeditions, indians would follow and english mostly won
The treaty was Utrecht
British gained island of nova scotia
What NE colonists accomplished during king georges war, what treaty ended it, and how it affected this accomplishment
They took the frenchs fort loisbourg
The treaty was aix-la-chapelle
It affected this accomplishment because they had to give the fort back to the french
The fort that the french built at forks of ohio and the results of washingtons expedition against the fort
the french built fort duquesene
the french and indians ambushed them. washington built fort necessity and french fired upon them easily. send washington back to VA
What the albany congress was and its results
It was a plan for union among the colonies. council will have power over all colonies.
Some colonies rejected it and some colonies ignored it.
How the french and indian war differed from earlier french and english wars
they sent regular army troops to colonies for the first time
Braddocks defeat
He lead english soldiers and governor of va lead his soldiers to destroy fort duquesne. They were used to certain style warfare and they were attacked by the french and indians who were behind rocks and trees
William pitts war strategy and was it succesful
Allow englands german allies to fight in europe which will free up british forces to fight at sea and in no. america.
It was successful because they took fort duquesne and became fort pitt
The terms of the treaty of paris in 1763
enlish got land east of miss river
spain got land west of miss river
england gets fl in exchange for cuba
The major areas of colonial complaints about british policies in 18th C (4)
-restrictions on land settlement
-Increase attempt to enforce trade regulations
-troops
-taxation
The writs of assistance and how americans reacted
Court orders that authorized customs officers to conduct searches in colonist properties to look for smuggled contraband
They revolted because thier privacy rights were violated
Pontiacs rebellion
A group of indians who were led by Ottawa leader pontiac. They attacked upper and PENN and NY b/c they didnt like british policies
The proclimation of 1763 and how colonists reacted
boundary line was drawn saying that no settlements can be made past the appalachian mtns

Colonists were upet because they wanted to move westward
Britains motives in stationing troops in america and how colonists felt about it
parliament thought colonists should help pay for troops tobe stationed there and protect new world
Colonists felt that their rights ere violaed because troops couldnt be stationed during peace time
The sugar act of 1764 and the new principle it introduced
raised tariffs on sugar an lowered taxes on molasses

colonists saw it as a means for british to raise money rather than reg trade. colonists wanted taxation without representation
The quartering act
Another way to get the colonists to pay for troops. Had assembly vote to pay fot housing and feeding of trooops
What the stamp act called for and the response of the colonial assemblies
called for tax on all printed documents.
It upset colonists which led to many outbursts
What the stamp act congress did
stated that only the colonial assemblies had a right to tax the colonies.
How colonial view of taxation and rep differed from british
The colonist wanted tax without representation
Britain believed that all british ppl were represented in parliament. virtual rep
The sons of liberty and what they did
Secret organization formed in american port cities and their purpose was to see that no tax stamps were sold.-tax stamp riots.
They eliminated stamp agents
The thing that forced the repeal of the stamp act
the boycott
The townsend acts and how they violated mercantalist principles
Taxes that were put on imports
defeated purpose of trading with a balance of trade
Why New yorks assembly was shut down
NY refused to support troops so parliament shut down assembly until they complied
How the merchants responded to the townsend acts
was it effective?
They revived the boycott and it became more effective as time went on.
John dickinson and what he wrote
He was a writer and a lawyer,
He wrote a letter from a farmer in pennsylvania
What Samuel Adams did and the result
He wrote a letter which angered the british and they ordered that colonial governors should dissolve their assemblies if they supported the letter. MA assembly became shut down.
The boston massacre
Colonists and unemployed men threw snowballs filled with rocks and other object at guards outside the custom commisioners office and they fired upon them
What Lord North did about the British policy toward the colonies
Had Townsend acts repealed except the tax on tea and boycott collapsed
Committee of correspondance and why they were significant
Corresponders who wrote letters to other colonies

They would write about what British were up to, serving as network of communication, and bringing them closer together.
How parliaments attempt tosave the british east india company led to trouble
Tea merchants' income was effected in the colony and ppl didnt like the monopoly which led to protests. Tea ships were sent back and the boston tea party occured.
Lord North's reaction to the boston tea party
He passed intolerable acts which closed the port of boston until east india co. was repaid for lost tea.
Any british official charged with capital crime was charged in england.
New quartering act was passed- British soldiers can live within colonists houses.
The Quebec act and how it seemed to the colonists
An attempt by government to give it a civilian government.
It had no assembly and no trial by jury.
Catholic church had equivalent position.
Colonists feared that they would get the same government and their rights would be taken away.
The result of british attempt to isolate massachusetts
drove other colonies to take side with massachesetts
What the first continental congress accomplished (4)
denounced the intolerable acts
calls on colonies to raise troops
stop trading with british empire
parliament cant have any other laws or taxes for the colonies
The minutemen
Special units of militia who were ready for action when they were called upon at a moments notice
Paul revere
On his horse he rode from Boston to lexington with other men and warned people that the british were coming.
What happened in lexington and concord. What happened on the way back to boston
British drove off americans.
4000 American farmers and colonists hid behind trees and stone walls and fired upon the british troops