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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Do the motor nerve fibers have any ganglia?
no
The parasympathetic system has ____ preganglionic fibers and ____ postganglionic fibers.
long, short
The parasympathetic fibers bind in a ________ basis with the ganglion.
1 to 1
The sympathetic systems has _____ preganglionic and ____ postganglionic fibers.
short, long
In the sympathetic system the preganglionic fibers synapse with ______ ganglion.
more than one, it might be 5 or 6 postganglionic fibers.
The preganglionic transmitter is ____ always!
Ach!
The sympathetic transmitter is ______.
NE
What are the 2 exceptions in the sympathetic system that dont use NE?
the adrenal gland and sweat glands
Describe the adrenal gland mechanism.
short pregang. and NO post gang. the binding of Ach makes the gland secrete epinephrine.
Epinnephrine binds to the ____ receptors in the blood vessels.
Beta
epinephrine on the blood vessels promotes _____.
Vasodilation
Does the adrenal gland also release glucose?
yes
Desribe the mechanism of the sweat gland.
the postgang. fibers release Ach rather than NE. (this is weird b/c sweat glands are sympathetic. They are "sympathetic-cholinergic."
The receptors at all neuromuscular junctions are _____.
nicotinic
what is the transmitter at the nicotinic receptors?
Ach
Muscarinic receptors are parasympathetic cholinergic found at the _____.
tissues
What are the 2 transmitters that bind to adrenergic receptors?
epinephrine and Ne
What 2 organs always receive dual innervation? This dual action is called ___?
eye and heart physiological antagonism
Ach on the eye causes ____?
miosis
NE on the eye causes ____.
Mydriasis
Ach produces ______. This is a ______ of the heart.
Bradycardia, slowing
Ach in the heart binds to ____ receptors.
muscarinic (it is at the tissues..)
NE binds to _____ receptors in the heart. This produces ________.
beta-1, tachycardia
Contractility is mainly a ______ function.
sympathetic
NE produces a _________ causing enhanced contractility on the ventricle muscle.
positive ionotropic effect.
Ach has a _____ dromotropic effect. This means ____?
negative, it slows down conduction
NE has a ___ dromotropic effect. This means ___?
positive, it speeds up conduction.
epinephrine causes _____ of the blod vessels.
vasorelaxation.
epi. binds to _____ receptors on the blood vessels.
Beta 2
T or F: There is basically no parasympathetic innervation on blood vessels anywhere. (exceptions??)
True, one exception: Ach causes release of EDRF/NO causing vasodilation.
T or F: Bronchial smooth muscle is largely NOT innervated by the parasym. disivion.
True
The bronchial smooth muscle will relax in response to epi. binding to the ____ receptor.
Beta 2
In the parasympathetic divison, depolarization will cause the ___ channels to open.
Ca
What enzyme makes Ach?
ChAT choline acetyltransferase.
Ach regulates its own release by way of the _____.
Ach autoreceptor.
______ act as agonists to the muscarinic receptors. (drug)
cholinoceptor direct acting drugs
Name 2 cholinoceptor direct acting drugs.
1- pilocarpine
2- bethanecol
The main use of pilocarpine is to treat ____. But its orphan use is to promote ___ and ____.
glaucoma, tearing and salivation. (Sjorgen's)
Pilocarpine is an _____.
alkaloid
Bethanecol is a ______.
choline ester
What transmitter does bethanecol resemble? What is special about it though?
Ach, it is resistant to acetylcholinesterase.
What drug is used after surgery in which there was a neuromuscular junction blockade.
Neostigimine (bad question)
Bethanecol and pilocarpine are ______ not _____ for muscarinic receptors.
selective, specific
Describe the mechanism of a cholinergic indirect acting drug.
it will inhibit acetylchoinesterase. This will increase the amount of Ach.
Botulinum toxic will prevent ______. This leads to a ___ in Ach.
the fusion of the Ach-containing vesicles at the nerve terminal. Decreases amount of Ach.