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49 Cards in this Set

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What do somatic afferent nerves innervate?
Sensory neurons for pain, touch, temp from skin.
What do somatic efferent nerves innervate?
They are motor neurons ending up in skeletal muscle.
What do visceral affernt muscles do?
They are sensory neurons that recieve sensory info from organs.
What do visceral efferent nerves do?
They are motor neurons ending in smooth muscle. They also stimulate cardiac muscle and exocrine glands (lacrimal, mucous, salivary, sweat)
What occurs during sypathetic autonomic nervous reactions?
"fight or flight" increaed heart/respiratory rate, vasoconstriction and sweating.
What occurs during parasympathetic autonomic nervous reactions?
"rest and digest" increased heart rate, decreased respiratory rate, vasodilatation, increased promotion of digestion, gastric secretions, salivary glands, urination/defication, increased contraction of peristalsis (intestinal muscles)
What are the three divisons of the autonomic nervous system?
sympathetic
parasympathetic
enteric
How many nerves does the somatic motor system require? How about the autonomic?
Somatic = 1
Visceral or autonomic or splanchnic = 2
Which neuron does not use Ach?
Postganglionic sympathetic.
What is the origin of sympathetic preganglionic neurons?
Spinal cord (lateral horn, T1-L2)
What is the origin of parasympathetic preganglionic neurons?
Brainstem (CN 3,7,9,10)
Spinal cord (lateral horn, S2-S4)
What is the location of the post ganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division?
2 places
paravertebral ganglion (next to spinal cord)
prevertebral ganglion (in front of spinal cord)
What is the location of the post ganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division?
2 places
Named ganglia associated with CN 3,7,9,10
Terminal ganglia in organ wall
What is the terminal distribution of sympathetic nerves?
Organs, stuff that goes to the skin (sweat glands, salivary, arrector pili, BV)
What is the terminal distribution of parasympathetic nerves?
Organs
Not to BV/skin
glands (mucus, lacrimal, glands of the GI tract, salivary)
Through which root do sympathetic visceral efferents go? What accompanies them?
Through the ventral root with somatic effernt motor nerves.
Which ramus contains sympathetic efferent preganglionic neurons?
White ramus. (T1-L2)
Which ramus contains sympathetic efferent postganglionic neurons?
Gray ramus. (T1-L2)
Through which ramus does the sympathetic visceral efferent go?
Both the dorsal and the ventral ramus.
Through which ramus does the sympathetic visceral efferent that innervate the skin of the back go? What else do they innervate?
Dorsal ramus, also BV, arrector pili
Through which ramus does the sympathetic visceral efferent that innervate the skin of the trunk/limbs go? What else do they innervate?
Through the ventral ramus, also BV, arrector pili
What connects paravertebral ganglions in the sympathetic divison and allows preganglionic fibers to ascend?
The interganglionic segments.
How do dermatomes higher than T1 recieve sympathetic innervation?
Via sympathetic neurons arising in the lateral horn crossing into the paravertebral ganglion but not synapsing and heading upwards through the interganglionic segments and other paravertebral ganglions and finally arriving to synapse at the appropriate paravertebral ganglion.
Where are white rami located?
T1-L2
Where are grey rami located?
Every level of the spinal cord.
What is the highest ganglion?
The superior cervical ganglion.
What is the lowest ganglion? What structure is it near?
The ganglionic impar (coccyx)
What are 3 other names for the series of paravertebral ganglia?
The paravertebral chain
The sympathetic chain
The sympathetic trunk
How many pairs of paravertebral ganglia are there?
22 pairs of ganglia.
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
31 pairs.
How are abdominal viscera supplied? Where do they arise? What are the structures that they pass through? Where do they synapse? Where do they go after that? What are they associated with?
Sympathetics arising from the lateral horns of T5-L2 pass through the ventral root, then through the white ramus and and through the paravertebral ganglion (w/o synapsing) at which point they become called splanchnic nerves. The splanchnic nerves then arrive at prevertebral ganglion and synapse. The postganglionic fibers then follow blood vessels to organs and innverate blood vessels along the way.
Where are prevertebral ganglion located?
Along the abdominal aorta, they are named by major branches of the abdominal aorta.
How is the adrenal (suprarenal) gland innervated? Where do they arise? What are the structures that they pass through? Where do they synapse? Where do they go after that? What are they associated with?
Via sympathetic innervation. The nerves arise from the lateral horn of T8-T12. The sympathetic nerve goes through the white ramus, through the paravertebral ganglion, becomes a splanchinic nerve then through the prevertebral ganglion, follow blood vessels and finally ends directly in the adrenal gland.
What do preganglionic sympathetic nerves that innervate the adrenal gland do?
These nerves simulate neurosecretory cells and cause them to release norepinephrine
Do parasympathetics innervate the Adrenal medulla?
NO
Are prevertebral (preaortic) ganglia connected in a chain?
NO
Describe the innervation of parasympathics to the sweat glands.
Parasympathetics do not go to sweat glands!
What do the parasympathetic fibers not innervate?
Skin - arrector pili
BV
Sweatglands
and adrenal (suprarenal) gland
What are PREvertebral ganglia mostly responsible for?
Supplying organs of the abdomen and pelvis.
What ganglia are heart/lungs/other upper stuff supplied by?
PARAvertebral ganglia
What is the collecton of sacral parasympathetic nerves called?
The sacral outflow.
Where is the vagus nerves nucleus?
Inside the brainstem.
Where does the vagus nerve go (3 places)? Where does it synapse?
Heart, stomach, and intestines. It synapses directly at the organs at terminal ganglia.
Describe the type of nerve the vagus nerve is.
Parasympathetic, preganglionic, collection of axons.
What type of nerves arise at S2?
Parasympathetic
Give an example of something that would be innervated by the parasympathetic fibers.
Urinary bladder.
Describe the course of parasympathetic preganglionic fibers.
They start at the lateral horn, go through ventral root, through the ventral ramus and becomes the pelvic splanchnic nerve at this point. Once they get close to their target organ they synapse at a terminal ganglion.
What type of nerves are pelvic splanchnic nerves?
Parasympathetic
PS = PS
Where do pelvic splanchnic nerves arise?
Sacral levels S2-S4