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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is a synergenic graft
donor and recepient are genetically identical
what is a allogenic graft?
donor and recepient are of the same species
what is the chance that your sibling's MHC matches yours?
1 in 4
what is a xenogenic graft?
donor and recepient are of different species.
In a seceond set rejection (rejection is quick due to previous sensitization) what is different besides the timing of rejection?
there is no revascularization or wound healing.
Define hyperacute reaction and give an example.
the acceptor has Ab's against the donor already, thus immediate rejection. An example is blood type mismatch
If there was an MHC mismatch in donor and recepient, is it better if it is class I or II?
Class I because CD8 T cells are not as damaging as CD4's.
what is alloreactivity and what does it lead to?
Foreign MHC's on the graft react with our self peptides, thus we get DTH response
An example of this condition is in a bone marrow transplant when the transplanted T cells mount an attack on the recepient's tissues.
Graft versus host disease.
how do the immunosuppresives cyclosporin and FK506 work?
they block calmodulin binding to calcineurin thus preventing NF-ATc txn factor which is needed for T cell activation.
what is a toxic effect of cyclosporin and immunosuppresives?
nephrotoxicity because kidneys need the calmodulin pathway
what do these drugs do? (answers in same order)
azathiprine, mycophenolate, corticosteroid, rapamycin, and CTLA4-Ig.
anti proliferative, anti proliferative, inhibit mac cytokine secretion, inhibit IL-2 signalling, blocks co-stimulation.
what is a cross reacting Ab and what is an example of it?
virus/bacteria may have Ag similar to our own. Thus our body attacks the foreign Ag, then attacks self Ag. Streptococcal Ag is similar to heart tissue, thus rheumatic fever.
what happens with polyclonal B cell activation?
B cells that release non specefic auto Ab's are stimulated by a pathogen. These Ab's are very low affinity but cause disease bc of their large numbers.
what are examples of type II autoimmune diseases?
acute hemolytic anemia, good pasture's, pemphigus vulgaris, acute rheumatic fever, and myasthenia gravis
This disease causes production of auto Ab's that constantly stimulate Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor thus there is an over production of thyroid hormones due to these long acting thyroid stimulating Ab's (LATS)
Grave's disease
what are three type III hypersensitivity autoimmune diseases?
mixed essential erythroglobulinemia, systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis
what autoimmune disease results in auto Ab's to DNA, histones, RBC's, platelets, and clotting factors thus leading to hemolytic anemia, vasculitis, or glomerulonephritis from deposition of immune complexes there.
what are examples of type IV hypersensitivity autoimmune diseases?
insulin dependent diabetes, rheumatism, multiple sclerosis
what autoimmune disease effects the CNS due to anti-myelin T cells?
multiple sclerosis
recurrent bacterial otitis media and pneumonia are common in patients with this immunodificiency that results in B cell dysfunction
In this immunodeficiency the progression of B cell maturation does not progress beyond pre-B cells because pre BCR cannot use Bruton's RTK.
X-linked agammaglobulinemia
this autoimmune disease has normal B cell levels just decreased levels of Ig; it is thought to be a defect in T cell/B cell interaction.
Aquired hypogammaglobulinemia
should patients with selective IgA deficiency be treated with injections of IgA?
no, IgA may be recognized as a foreign Ag.
This immunodeficiency has cells with no MHC's
Bare lymphocyte syndrome
This type of SCID deals with a defect in purine synthesis that results in an accumulation of substances that are toxic to lymphocytes
Adenine deaminase deficiency OR purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency
What defect in some SCIDs is a target for gene therapy?
the common gamma chain that is used in many cytokine receptors (IL-2) for example.
X linked SCID is also known as what? It can be treated how?
SCID with B cells (the common gamma chain is missing thus no T cells). It can be treated viabone marrow transplant or gene therapy.