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36 Cards in this Set

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what is it?
Azygos continuation of IVC still has a short segment of IVC that connects hepatic veins to R atrium. There is no infrahepatic or intrahepatic IVC, however.
?
More of the same
What is this?
Same thing as this.



Multiple meningiomas.
How would you present this case?
Images are T1, gadolinium enhanced.


MRI of the brain demonstrates multiple extraaxial enhancing mass lesions throughout the brain. The largest of these lesions is near the splenium of the corpus collusum in a posterior left sagittal location. Lesions are noted extending into the falx cerebri, tentorium and convexity dura. Smaller lesions are also identified in the left cerebellopontine angle, sphenoid wings bilaterally, within the sylvain fissures and adjacent to the transverse sinus. The lesions are slightly hyperintense to brain matter on proton density and T2 weighted images.
What percentage of meningiomas calcify?
20%
How often to meningiomas hemorrhage?
They do not
Where are meningiomas that are most likely to produce a lot of edema located?
Cerebral cortex
In what disease can multiple meningiomas be seen?
NF2
What other lesions are seen in NF2?
Peripheral nerve tumors (schwannomas) and ependymomas
What is BOOP a common example of?
Chronic interstial lung disease
What is the idiopathic variety of BOOP called?
COP

cryptogenic organizing pneumonia
What age group gets the idiopathic variety?
Middle age (40-60)
What percent of cases are idiopathic?
50%
What are known causes of BOOP?
Toxic fume or dust inhalation


Post infectious (mycoplasma, fungal, or viral)


Connective tissue disease


Smoking


Organ transplantation/Chronic graft-vs-host disease


Drug toxicity (Amiodarone)


BOOP has also been described in the contralateral lung following radiation therapy
What is the typical presentation?
Dry cough lasting 2-12 weeks with other constitutional symptoms
What is the appearance of BOOP on CXR
Like an organizing pneumonia
What is the appearance of an organizing pneumonia?
Bilateral patchy peripheral alveolar infiltrates
The infiltrates are predominantly where in 60% of cases?
Subpleural
What is appearance on HRCT?
80%. . .

Bilateral

patchy

subpleural

basilar

consolidations (dense, i.e. not just ground glass)


AND/OR


60%. . .

Ground glass opacities
What are other findings associated with BOOP?
Large, peripheral areas of irregularly marginated mass-like consolidation (20%)


Peribronchial thickening is common.

Centrilobular nodular densities ranging in size from 1 to 10 mm (sometimes larger), which may be well or poorly defined (30-50%)

Adenopathy (25%)

effusion (up to 30%) of cases
Accessory navicular. Seen in 5%. Represents one of the two navicular ossification centers.
what is it?
Also accessory navicular. Larger size more likely to be symptomatic.
what is it?
Also accessory navicular. Larger size more likely to be symptomatic.
what is it?
What group most commonly develops accessory navicular?
Flat foot
What tendon is most responsible for preventing flat foot?
Posterior tibial tendon.
Where does posterior tibial tendon attach?
To this secondary ossification center on medial navicular
What is etiology of accessory navicular in these patients?
Excessive pull on this ossicle as posterior tibial tendon tries to compensate for flat foot, disallowing fusion of the two ossivication centers.
What is os trigonum?
Unfused lateral tubercle of talus.
What is differential diagnosis?
Shephard's fracture = fracture of lateral talar tubercle.
Where is os peroneus?
Poserolateral surface of cuboid.
What is os peroneus associated with?
Peroneus longus tendon
Where does peroneus longus tendon run?
Around and under cuboid, across plantar aspect of foot.
Where does peroneus longus tendon insert?
First metatarsal.
What is os vesalinum?
Unfused accessory ossification center of base of fifth metatarsal.
What is problem with that?
Could mimic avulsion fracture of 5th metatarsal.
What tendons insert on this ossification center?
Peroneus brevus


Peroneus tertius