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464 Cards in this Set

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For equation F=mv^2/r; just b/c r dec doesn't mean Fc is inc; why?
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(T/F) Fluids with low viscocity can hold off turbulence better than high viscous fluids.
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(T/F) Density depends on viscosity
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(T/F) Pressure different means that the fluid can't flow.
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If there is a pressure different, can a fluid accelerate?
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(T/F) Bernouli's: when fluid rises, pressure goes down.
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K is force force over area so for muscle K is equal to what?
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If the size of something is enlarged by a linear factor x, maxx_new=x^3*m_old
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For tension at the top of a pendulum, the tension is equal to:
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(T/F) An idealized (frictionless) pendulum will keep oscillating the same way forever: maintain amplitude theta.
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For a pendulum, where along the path is the tension the largest?
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How does acceleraton at the top of a mountain compared to at sea level?
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Why is mass often missing in certain equations?
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Give me an example of when mass is often missing in certain equations.
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In a pendulum, how does the centripetal force compare to the tension?
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The period of SHM dpeends only on what variables?
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Why is it more difficult to illegally tap into fiber optic systems than into copper cable systems?
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(T/F) Intrafred light contains more energy than visible light.
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(T/F) When increase the frequency, you also increase the refractive index (generally)
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(T/F) EM radiation with short wavelength
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dB=10log(I/Io)
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Can only get total internal reflection when traveling from a medium with higher n to a lower n
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(T/F) The frequence of a wave doesn't change as it travels from one medium to another.
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(T/F) B/c intranuclear electrostatic repulsion w/in a more crowded nucleus is much greater, more neutrons are required to keep bigger nuclei together.
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What is a fissile?
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H+H+H+H => 4He + 2x + energy
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(T/F) Free neutrons are always incorporated into surrounding nuclei.
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(T/F) Fact that something is a better ligand tells us that it has more electron density.
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(T/F) All ionic cmpds are solids at room temperature.
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(T/F) Ammonia chloride, NH4Cl, is ionic.
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(T/F) Ionic cmpds only exist btw atoms of very different electronegativities with the EXCEPTION of ammonium salts and a handful of strong acids, cmpds consisting of all nonmetal elements are covalent and week electrolyes.
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# The toxicity of ammonia and CO stems from the fact that these cmpds are better ligands than O2; that's why they replace oxygen in hemoglobulin.
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# A molecule which has a trigonal pyramid shape is one that has 3 grps of bonding electrons and one group of nonbonding electrons.
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# Formal Charge = Valence - 1/2(Bonding)-(Nonbonding).
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# Current is a function of the SA of both electrolines (therfore surfae area of a piece of foil would be greater than a cylinder, plate, or spherical electrode)
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What is the total current output of a battery only dependent upon?
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# While it is true that a cell with a positive voltage will produce a positive current, a cell with a negative voltage (nonspontaneous rxn) is considered "dead" and will produce no current (I_cell=0.0)
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# Value 2.303 is a conversion factor btw natural (base e) and common (base 10) logs.
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# superscript <degrees>: 298K, 1ATM
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# Ions will be colors if they have a partially filled d or f orbitals.
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# Log of a small fraction is a negatice number.
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# Pseudo law of chemistry: pressure only has an effect on gases (look for row 1 & 2 elements)
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Work Energy Theorem
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# Two particles of like chrage and equal mass are separated bya given distance. If mass of one particle is doubled, the repulsive force btw particles will be unchanged b/c repulsive force is dependent on charge on charge not mass.
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# Field created by the source charge is indeed affected by the nature of the medium surrounding. If put in insulator will def dec E, the equation E=kQ/r^2 assumes that source charge is in vaccum.
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# Sign of electric field only has to do with direction, not strength.
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# v=sqrt(B/p) where v=velocity; B = bulk modulus (resistance to compression; p = density
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# n = c/v where n=refractive index; c=speed of light; v=velocity in medium
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# when given sin(theta), use since(theta) = opposute/hypoteneus
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# A hammer is used to ddrive a nail into a board. Work is done in the act of driving the nail. Compared to the moment before the hammer strikes the nail, the mechanical energy of the hammer after its impact will be less, b/c the hammer has done work. The hammer has done positive work on the nail, giving it enough energy to move into the wood. Thus some of the hammer's original KE is lost, leaving it with less mechanical energy.
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# Archimedian's principle: an object is float on a fluid. The weight of the fluid displaced by the floating object is equal to the weight of the object.
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# Only way to keep something floating is having the Fbuoyant force equal to the weight.
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# An object is sinking in fluid, the weight of the fluid displaced by the sinking object is less than the weight of the object (weight > Fbuoyant is only way to get object to sink!)
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# Buoyant force = p_liquid*V*g
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# Ideal fluid is incompressible and nonturbulent.
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# High fluid flow speed implied lower fluid pressure by continuity equation.
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# Fluid flow should be constant throughout a pipe.
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# A magnetic field is created only by electric charges in motion.
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# Motionless charged particle doesn't create a magnetic field.
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# B = (u i)/(2 pi r) ; increasing i and decreasing r will increase B.
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# Virtual images are always upright.
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# Lens power is the reciprocol of focal length: P=1/f
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# When looking for product of beta+ emission, look for elements where one less proton.
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# Kidney-liver: two highly vascular organs whose primary function is to purify blood by filtering fluids thru cellular membranes.
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# number of electrons = 2n^2.
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# The hydrogen ion H+ doesn't have an electrons so the quantum #s could not be 1, 0, 0 +1/2
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# 4f subshell is composed of 7 degenerate orbitals, not 14 (14 electrons though).
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# A radical has an odd # of valence electrons… ie: BrO3 = 7+6(3)=25 (Radical b/c odd # e's)
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# sp^2 hybridization: 120 degrees trigonal planar.
#
# radicals remove electrons from other atoms to complete their octets => act as oxidants/oxidizing agents.
#
# Lewis base: donates a pair of nonbonding e's to form a covalent bond.
#
# Coordination complexes are covalently bonded complexes btw nonmetal ligands of transition metal ion.
#
# Si is a metalloid.
#
# Si-F bond is very polar; not ionic in nature.
#
# Most transition metals are vividly colored b/c they contain partially filled d orbitals whose electrons undergo transition at visible wavelengths. Therefore, transition metals that aren't colored have either 0 or 10 e's in their d orbital.
#
# The ionic solid with the highest MP will be the one with the strongest ionic interactions.
#
# Nearly all substances expand and become less dense when heated. This is due to increased motion of molecules which increases the spaces btw the molecules.
delta(V)=k*Q*delta(1/r); W_byfield=-q*delta(V)
# A heterogeneous catalyst is one that has a phase different from the reactants which it is catalyzing.
#
# The rate law only depends upon the reactants in the rate-determine (slow) step of the overal reaction.
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# A catalyst only has a net effect on a rxn that is not at equilibrium, catalyst increases the rate at which a system reaches equilibrium.
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# Walls of a good coffe cup are insulators => they prevent heat transfer with the environment. This is an adiabatic (or closed) system.
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# Heat capacity of one gram of a substance is called the material's specific heat.
#
# SPECIFIC HEAT = HEAT CAPACITY / MASS (g)
#
# A redox rxn supercedes all other types of rxns, that is, if a redox is occuring in a rxn regardless of whether a precipitate acid or base is being produced, the rxn is still classfied as a redox rxn.
#
# Higher reduction potential => more corrosive resistant.
#
# If 2 metals in contact, metal with high Ered will replace electrons lost to oxygen by taking them from the metal with the lower reduction potential. The one with the lower Ered will serve as the sacrificial anode.
#
# The one with the lower Ered will serve as the sacrificila anode.
#
# All metal oxides are alkaline. Therefore, immersion in an acid bath will strip these protective coats anda llow the acid to begin to oxidize the metal. For many metals, such as Al, Zn, and Mg, this rxn is rather fast and copious amounts of H2(g) can be generated.
#
# Electrolysis: an applied current is consuemd during electrolysis => H must be endothermic.
#
# Electrochecmial and electrolytic cells require a FLUID solution to facilitate ion migration => solids would NOT work.
#
# Reverse rxn of a nonspontaneous rxn is spontaneous => the products of electrolysis will react upon contact.
#
# Electrolytic cell: (+) anode ; (-) cathode
#
# Overall charge of water is zero (has dipole moment) => positive of dipole will point in direction of cathode (neg terminal) and neg poriton of dipole in anode direction. => will not move in either direction (no attractor) since no charge.
#
# Na reacts instantnly with metal, therefore Na metal will never be isolated as a product of an aqueous phase electrolysis => NaOH is produced.
#
# In the electrolysis of potassium fluoride, KF will produce potassium metal and fluorine gas. Fluorine gas is an extremely potent oxidzing agent => the best material to use to construct the electrodes might be a nonmetal covalen tconductor suhch as graphite. It would be foolish to use a vulnerable, metallic electrode which would make a dandy reducing agent.
#
# alpha radiation is emission of Helium.
#
# Fluorescent molecules always emit photons of equal or less energy (and freq) than those absorbed.
#
# Nucleus decays: electrostatic repulsion propels alpha particle out of nucleus giving the particle kinetic energy => alpha particle then collides with an atom, transferring some of its KE to the atom's electrons elevating them into higher energy levels (electric PE) => excited electron returns to ground as EM energy (light).
#
# Atom can only fluoresce after it has promoted (excited) an e- into a higher energy level by absorbing energy.
#
# Increasing energy => decreasing stability.
#
# Colors classfied as opposite pairs: color #1-color$2; if a nonemitting object has color #1, it must be absorbing color #1's opposite color, color #2 and vice versa.
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# A ligand must be able to donate a nonbonding pair of electrons. Therefore, a ligand must always be a lewis base.
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# All metal nitrates are soluble.
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# Salt solubility rules: 1) All group I (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+ Cs+) and ammonium salts (NH4+) are soluble. 2) All nitrates (NO3-), perchlorates (ClO4-), and acetate salts (C2H3O2-) are soluble. 3) All silber (Ag+), lead (Pb2+/Pb4+) and mercury (Hg2 2+/Hg2+) salts are insolbule except for thier nitrates, perchlorates, and acetates.
#
# All hydrophobic cmpds accumulate in the hydrophobic crevices of the body. Example: fat dposition on the interior of arterial walls.
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# Assuming that crown ether is neutral and that the cation in the crown ether is potassium ion. The charge of the crown ether K+ complex ion is 1+ (0+1=1).
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If xM is the concentration of a solution with 1:1 mixture of concentrated acid and water. The molarity of the conc acid would be 2x M.
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# Nitric acid is a powerful oxidizing agent which oxidizes (CH3)2Hg into CO2, H2O, and Hg2+ (as the nitrate). Will find mercuric nitrate in sol C but no dimethyl mercury.
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# Crown ethers increase the organic solubility of cations by encapsulating the ion w/ a relatively nonpolar shell.
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# All ionic cmpds are soluble at RT, and have extrmeely lwow volatilities.
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# Salts are nonvoltaile!
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# Nitric acid is such a powerful oxidizing agent that it will never reduce anything.
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# Chelation: process of forming a coordinate covalent bond btw and electron pair donator (ligand) and an electron pair acceptor (metal ion) => chelation is a lewis base rxn.
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# metal ion: electron pair acceptor
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# since G^deg=-NFE^deg, when cell has positive voltage, the rxn must be spontaneous.
It is a mionimum boiling azeotrope w/ ethanol as the most volatile component. Can assume that the component that is more abundant in the critical composition is the more volatile of the 2 compoennts.
# Graphite is good electrical conductor.
#
# For galvanic cell, if precipitate out the copper ions the rxn would completely stop (b/c it relies on converting Cu2+ + 2e- => Cu(s).
#
# If a student accidentally placed the zinc electrode into the copper solution: the light bulp would go out; zin electrode would be immediately encrusted with a layer of copper metal; solution would wamp up b/c there is nolong an organized electrical flow => all energy of rxn would be dissipated as heat.
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# All Na salts are soluble so you would never expect a precipitate to form.
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# Sodium carbonate is a weak base by definition but it is a strong enough to make solutions significantly alkaline when dissolved.
You can determien the cutoff point for reactivity by comparing the reduction potentials of these metals w/ the reduction potential of the hydrogen ions the metal reacts with.
# Neutralizatoin of a base by acid is always an exothermic process.
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# Zn(s) reduces Cu2+ to Cu(s). Zn2+, H+, and Cu2+ are all in their most oxidized state and lack the electrons required to reduce one another.
Zinc electrode as anode in a 1M Zn2+ solution; hydrogen electrode as cathode in 1M H+ solution.
# Precipitation reduces the amnt of dissolved ions in solution, there, with all other things being equal, solutions w/ precipitates are expected to experience less of a bp elecation and mp depression than solution w/o precipitates (I is less for w/ precipitate).
#
# pH of 7 at the equivalent pt is indicative of a strong acid titrated with a weak base or vice versa.
#
# According to Le Chateliers principle, acidic gases tend to be more soluble in water than neutral gases are b/c they partially dissociation in solution. Addition of acid would be expected to diminish the amnt of dissociated gas in solution, & thus decrease the solubility of the gas. Furthermore, it is well known that solubility of a gas in a liquid decreases with increasing temperature.
#
# The most effective way of driving a dissolved acidic gas from soluton is to add more acid to decrease the solubility of acid gas and then boil to further decrease the solubility.
# Titrating a solution of weak base (such as NH3) w/ a strong acid would result in an acidic salt of the equivalent point.
#
# weak bases: NH3 (ammonia & amines)
#
# Strong bases: Group I hydroxides, Some group II hydroxides (Ca, Sr, Ba); Metal amides (NaNH2; since amide ion NH2- will react completely with H2O to form NH3 and OH- ions)
#
# Salt solubility Rules: 1) All Group I (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs+) and ammonium (NH4+) salts are soluble; 2) All nitrate (NO3-), perchlorate (ClO4-) and acette (C2H3O2-) salts are soluble; 3) All silber (Ag+), lead (Pb2+/Pb2++) and mercury (Hg2 2+/Hg2+) salts are insoluble, except for their nitrates, perchlorates, acetates.
#
# Wind machine extracting energy from moving air mass must have less speed after passing through the machine than before (due to KE). By continuity equation, lower speed v implies a greater cross sectional area.
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# By continuity equation, lower speed v implies a greater cross sectional area A.
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# More rotational KE => more efficient if power is proportion to omega.
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# Bernoulli effect: pressure difference causes a hot force (the lift) perp to the flow.
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# Resolution is the process of separation two enantiomers from each other.
#
# Original # of parents nuclei, No, is equal to the # which have decayed plus # which have not.
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# If something is anomalistically young age determined by the uranium thorium method, it could be that there is more uranium-239 recently added to the rock so that one would derive a younger age b/c the ratio of daughter to parent is lower.
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# Since decay of parents is intilaly fast, intial production of daugthers is fast as well. (radiactive decay).
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# Freezing point and melting point are analagous.
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# If something has a high crystalliation (melting) temp, this implies that it has the strong intermolecular forces so need to figure out the ionic changes.
#
# If something no longer resonates at another object's resonsant frequency, amplitude will decrease due to destructive interference.
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# The speed of a wae that travels along the bridge depends on the internal properties of the medium such as density of the bridge. B/c mechanical waves depeneds on internal properties of the medium.
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# Frequency is in terms of oscillations per second.
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# f_n=n*f_1 ; second harmonic freq is equal to 2x the fundamental frequency.
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# Neutralization of 99.9% acid tlels us that for every 1000 H+ originally in solution, only one remains.
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# Compression of a solud object is governed by the equation: F/A=Y(deltaL/L)
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# Decreasing temperature increases viscocity of the electrolyte.
#
# When temperature increases across a resistor,when electrons collide w/ atoms of the resistor, the vibration of the atoms increases and the atom KE increases. As a result, the electron transfer some of its KE to the atom so the electron's KE decreases as a result of the collisions.
#
# Semipermeable membrane: alllows movement of solvent molecules but not solute molecules.
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# Sufficient energy will break covalent bonds.
#
# Phosphorous and boron atoms enhance the donuctivity of Si b/c they have diff # of valence electrons. Si has 4, P has 5 and boron has 3.
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# 1eV is equal to energy requeired to move an electron through a potential difference of one volt.
#
# Thermal expansion of a solud: delta(L) = alpha * L * delta(T)
#
# Paricle of light is known as a photon: E=hf (h~particle; f~wave)
#
# PF5: five bonding electron pairs and number lone pairs => trigonal bipyramid.
#
# To tell if something is a catalyst or a reactant, check to see if its been used up (reactant) or remains unchanged (catalyst).
#
# Electrostatic interaction: pos and neg charge attract each other.
#
# London forces are weak attractive forces btw instanteous and induced dipoles occuring in nonpolar molecules.
#
# Concave lens have negative focal lengths. Concave lenses are diverging and thus can only have cirtual images thus I must be negative.
#
# Nitric acid is a powerful oxidizing agent due to the nitrate ion, and an effective solvent for the dissolution of metal precipitates b/c metal ion-nitrate solutes are alwayss soluble.
#
# Transition metal atoms may produce various mixtures of ions in different oxidation states.
#
# Decomposition of a molecule due to heat is permanent.
#
# Gases warm as they are compressed.
#
# The vapor pressure of any substance is independent of external pressure.
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# When gas is compressed, it is receiving work from the surrounding (aka. exchanging heat with the surroundings).
#
# When a gas is compressed, it is heated and loses heat to the surroundings if the system is not insualted.
#
# Metals are particularly susceptible to oxidizing agents such as chlorine (relaly electronegative gas).
#
# Helium is a more ideal-behaving gas than nitrogen b/c nitrogen has strong Londong dispersion forces due to greater # of electrons and surace area of the N2 molecule.
#
# With weaker attractive forces, the helium molecules will exert a slightly greater pressure than N2.
#
# Due to its small mass, He atoms will move faster at any temp than N2, and will escape from any vessel at a greater rate.
#
# He is an inert gas and will not participate in any chemical reactions.
#
# Total energy retained within a hot gas depends upon the change in its temperature, specific heat and the amount of gas.
#
# Work done by gravity on a pendulum is equal to the negative change in the gravitaitonal PE: W=-delta(PE)=-Mgdelta(h)=-Mg(L-Lcos(theta))
#
# Effects of air resistance on a projectile: take less time to reach its peak than it does to descend from its peak b/c air resistance/friction always opposes the direction of the projectile's velocity.
#
# Continuous spectrum with a broad spectrum => characteristic of blackbody or thermal emitter.
Pco2=(44g/mol)/(22.4L/mol)=2g/L
# Blackholes emit radiation at any temp, but only emit visible light when very hot. (Also, blackbody only depends on the temperature not the type of element).
#
# Diffraction: sprading of a wave after it has pssed thru an aperature.
#
# Light can act as a wave so doppler effect applies to EM waves; if light is moving away then the freq is decreasing and the wavelength is increasing.
#
# Converging lens => convex; f is positive => image is positive (real and inverted).
#
# Having passenger raise their arms would decrease the rotational inertia of the loaded train (b/c more mass is near the center of rotation) => increase it's speed.
#
# All Group I and ammonium salts are soluble so one wouldn't expect that water contamined with small quantitiy of this stuff will precipitate something.
#
# For CO2 + H2O <=> H2CO3; if add base, it will neutralize the acid and increase the solubility of CO2 in the solution.
#
# CO2 + H2O <=> H2CO3; if acid solution were titrated when some CO2 remained dissolved in sulfuric acid solution, then the calcualted sulfur content of the coal would be too high b/c more KOH would be required to titrate the solution to the neutrality.
#
# When heated, tungsten(IV) oxide, WO3, reacts with hydrogen gas to produce metallic tungsten and water vapor, the following reaction occurs: WO3 + 3H2 => W + 3H2O.
#
# f = v * A
#
# H2O molecules are much more polar than H2S molecules b/c O is more electronegative than S. This causes much stronger hydrogen bonding btw water molecules than btw H2S molecules.
#
What is the work done by the electric force on the negative charge as q moves form position X to position Y?
#
# Ionic interactions are always stronger than dipole interactions.
#
# The water vapor pressure of salt solutions are lwer than that of pure water b/c ion-dipole forces are stronger than dipole dipole interactions.
#
# Ksp=8.3e-17; x^2=8.3e-17 => x=9e-9
#
# To figure out how pH will change with a saturated solution of a metal hydroxide, need to see if its exothermic. If it is, then it will be less basic as temperature increases.
#
# The conjugate base of a strong acid (such as chloride, the conjugate base of the strong HCL) is pH neutral in solution.
#
# The conjugate acid of a weak base (such as Pb2+, the conjugate acid of the weak base lead hydroxide) is actually slightly acidic. The saturated lead chloride solution can be expected to be slightly acidic.
#
# Enthalpy changes of the rxns are not equal. If the enthalpy changes of 2 rxns are different, then the Gibb's free energy are also differ. Activation energies of the rxns are also not equal.
#
# The change of disorder of the molecules is independent of bond energy.
#
# Stability is increased by higher bond energy and lower zero-point energy. Ie. C-D bond is stronger than C-H bond, the rxn will be slowed.
#
# If OD bond is slightly greater strength than an OH bond, DNO2 must be a slightly weaker acid than HNO2.
#
# CO2 is an invisible gas.
#
# Hydrogen gas is produced during redox rxns.
#
# Since neutralization rxns btw an acid and base evolves heat, it is likely that this vapor is nothing more than some steam produiced at locally hot part of the solution before stirring.
#
# When solution is being diluted, its entropy is increasing b/c the solute molecuels are speading out.
#
# Heat released from the dilution of concentrated HCl comes from the formation of ion-dipole interactions in solvation shells; reason this process is exothermic is b/c the addition of more water moelcules allows for many more ion-dipole interaction btw H+ & water and CL- & water.
#
# Force of spring is Hooke's Law: F=kx
#
# Two blocks some mass are placed in contact and allowed to reach thermal equilibrium; T2>T1 and C1>C2; heat will flow from block 2 to block 1. Since block 1 has the greater specific heat, its magnitude of temperature change will be smaller than that of block 2.
#
# If an object is real, will have NEGATIVE magnification.
#
# For the equilibrium constant for the whole reaction, multiply all the individual rate constants for each step of the rxn.
#
# Adiabatic means insulated so heat is not allowed to enter or escape the box.
#
# Energy is proportional to current. Energy carried by electricity depeends upon on ly two things: current and vultage.
#
# Compressing gases warm, expanding gases cool.
#
# Oscillating current: repeatedly moving away from equil pos and turn.
#
# Direct current: move away from equil position and remain there.
#
# Give AC voltage source is rms.
#
# If assume that all gases are at the same temp and pressure, then the one with the lowest moleclar mass will have the lowest density => greatest lift.
#
# Isochoric: constant volume.
#
# Isobaric: constant pressure.
#
# Isothermal: constant temp.
#
# Adiabatic: w/o exchange of heat btw system and its surroundings.
#
# The pressure at higher altitute is less than that of the surface so as the parcel ascents, it expands. An expanding gas cools (just as aerosol cans and scuba tanks cool when gas is let out of them).
#
# For transition metals, can take one electron from (n+1)s orbital to make sd orbital have 5 or 10 e's. You cannot take both (n+1)s electron though!
#
# For a DC circuit, if all light bulbs are connected in parallel, if have one light bulb go out, the light of each of the other bulbs stays the same.
#
# When two substances form a maximum boiling azeotrope, the mixture has a higher BP than that corresponding to the vapor pressure predicted by Raoult's Law. Results from decrease in the vapor pressures of the constitutent species.
#
# An increase in the vapor pressure of the constitutents would result in a lower BP which is characteristic of a minimum boiling azeotrope.
#
# Two species being mixed together don't change the characteristic specific heats of each other.
#
# When add just a little salt, the BP won't change too much b/c there is very little salt interacting with the water.
#
An ethanol and water solution can be distilled to, at best, a 95% ethanol sol;ution, which boils at 78 deg C. What can be said about this mixture?
#
# For a negative charge, the force F is in the oppositive direction to the electric field.
#
# F=qE=ma
#
# Metals in their elemental, or free, form can only be oxidized, not reduced.
#
# Since metals in their elemental or free form can only be oxidized, not reduced, rxn of HCl w/ metals proceed when electrons are lost from the metal, thereby reducing the hydrogen ions to H2 gas.
#
Where is the cutoff point btw those metals that will react and those that won't with Hcl?
#
# Half cell potential of the hydrogen electrode at 1M concentration is always zero.
#
What would be most useful for determing the reduction potential of zin (copper doesn't exist) ?
#
# An incandescent lights' filament will vaporize at a faster rate than it would at normal atmospheric pressure.
#
# An inert gas (unlike oxygen) won't cause oxidation but it dose slow down the process of sublimation. The ultimate purpose of the inert gas is to allow the filament to be made hotter w/o being destoryed too fast by vaporization.
#
# Converging streamlines indicate increasing speed of the fluid; diverging streamlines indicate decreasing speed of the fluid.
#
# Since we must put in heat to turn the water into steam, the steam must have a greater internal energy.
#
# When steam condenses back into water, it releases energy as heat.
#
# If two openings to a pipe are open, the pressure is constant since both eends are at Patm.
#
# Neils Bohr Energy of electron falling: E=-A(1/ni^2 - 1/nf^2) where ni=initial quantum #; nf=final quantum #.
#
# pH = pKa + log[conjguatebase]/[acid]
#
# The intensity of a light source is the # of photons produced per unit time; increaseing number of photons striking metal place => increases electrons being ejected from metal.
#
# Increasing the frequency of the light source would NOT increase the # of electrons ejected from the surface of the metal; it would INCREASE the enrgy of the incident photons (photon that strikes the metal will eject an electron w/ a higher KE) but it won't increase the # of e's jeected since the # of electrons ejected is proportional to the # of incident photons.
#
# For both galvanic and electrolytic cells, electrons move from anode to cathode.
#
# C=k*eo*A/d
#
# The thresho0ld frequency of light needed to break the clusters down into their constitutent molecules is used to derive the nergy the energy of the clusters => "energy of the clusters" is the nergy released when a cluster is formed.
#
# The dipole of HCl is larger than NO so more readily to induce a dipole.
#
# EM spectrum: radio waves => microwaves => far infrared => Near infrared => ROYGB => UV light
#
# Tshaped molecule requries 4 atoms.
#
# The shape of SO2 is bent
#
# E=hf=hv/lambda
#
# Energy of formation of an elecmetn in its standard state is zero.
#
# Expt starts at point B w/ ignition (Ti) and point C is the final temp Tf after combustion of products.
#
# If a solution turns brown, it is detectable by UV spectroscopy.
#
# Manometer measures pressure of gases.
#
# Gravimetric analysis: detects materials by measuring mass. Cannot be used to detect mass insude a vessel b/c its constant (law of conservation of matter)
#
# Convection: process of energy transfer through the mass movement of heated material; this can't occur in a vacuum since by def, there are no particles w/ mass in a vacuum.
#
# Conduction requires vibrations of molecules and hence requires molceules; can't proceed in vacuum.
#
# Radiation: transfer of energy via EM waves; certainly can propagate thru vacuum.
#
# Coordinate covalent bond = one nuclei can donate both electrons (ie: lone pair of electrons on NH3)
#
# sigma bond: electrons are close as possible to the 2 sources of positive charge (the 2 nuclei); most stable form of covalent bond; free to rotate.
#
# pi bonds: less stable than sigma bond => more reactive; higher energy level; form weaker bond; 3rd row elements form woeaker pi bonds than second row elements; dbl bonds are rare for all atoms except carbon, nitrogen, oxygen,and sulfur; NOT free to rotate
#
# Hybridization: s has 2 orbitals; p has 3 orbitals; and d has 5 orbitals
#
# more s character a bond has, the more stable, the stronger, and the shorter it becomes.
#
# count up # of sigma bonds + lone pairs to get hybridization.
#
# Electron delocalizatoin: bonding e's are spread out over 3+ atoms; only results from pi bond.
#
# Fpir rules for writing resonance structure: Atoms must not be moved; e's move but not atoms; # of unpaired electrons must remain constant; resonance atoms must lie in the same plane; only proper lewis structures allowed
#
# In general, the more covalent bonds, the more stable the structure.
#
# Separation of charges w/in a molecule decrease stability.
#
# 2 conditions for resonance to occur: 1) species must contain an atom with a p orbital or an unshaired pair of electrons; 2) that atoms must be a single bonded to an atom that possesses a dbl or trpl bond. Ring sturctures must also satisfy Huclkel's rule: planar monocyclic rings w/ 4n+2 pi electrons should be aromatic (display resonance)
#
# Dipole moment: molecule or bond which have a dipole moment => polar w/o dipole moment => nonpolar
#
# Polar bond results from different in electronegativity of its atoms. Molecule may may have dipole moments however may be nonpolar b/c dipole moments cancel each other out.
#
# Induced dipoles: generally weaker than permanent dipole.
#
# Instantaneous dipole moment: weaker than induced dipole; act to induce a dipole in neighboring atom.
#
# A coolant is most effective when it can absorb a large quantiity of heat w/o a large increase in its own temeprature; that is when the coolant has a high specific heat.
#
# High specific heat: absorbs a lot of heat w/o getting much increase in its temperature.
#
# The difference btw the rest masses before and after a nuclear rxn, correpsond to the rxn eenrgy. If the total mass decreases, then energy is released, primarily in the form of kinetic energy of the product nuclei.
#
# Radioactive decay: A=Ao*e^(-kt)
#
# Experiment: as uranium in the FUEL RODS fissions and decay products fly off, the mass of the fuel rods will decrease.
#
# Osmotic pressure is a colligative property which means it depends only on the concentration of solute particles and not on their identitiy => 0.003m solution of NaCl will have an effective molality of 0.006m.
#
# Gases : decrease in KE => Increases PE and therefore increases attraction btw individual molecules.
#
# Since the # of moles of gas,n, is constant, decreasing the volume of the container will always result in an increase in the gas pressure on the container walls.
#
# Souind generally travels more slowly thru gases than thru the conensed phases (liquid or solid).
#
# Solids resist compression to a much greater extent than do gases => solids have a higher modulus of elasticity than gases.
#
# Increasing compressibility => Decreases modulus elasticity.
#
What is the approximate density of a pure sample of CO2 at STP in g/L?
#
# For a bullet hitting a pendulum: the bullet embeds intself in the block b4 the pendulum has swings upward. When the bullet hits the block, its KE is converted to heat as it burrows into the wood, so neighter velocity nore KE is conserved. MOMENTUM is conserved though.
#
# Assumpiong for bullet hitting pendulum experiment: the bullet's height doesn't change while its traveling form the gun to the block; if the bullet's high changed while traveling from the gun to the block, then the charge in gravitational PE would alter the bullet's total energy when struck the block, causing h to change, and consequently the calcualted value for v.
#
# Elastic potential energy of the compressed string: 1/2kx^2… converted to kinetic energy 1/2mv^2.
#
# The triple point depicts the unique pressure and temperature at which all 3 phases-gas, liquid, and vapor can coexist in equilibrium. Since vaporization, sublimation, condensation, and deposition all occur simultaneously the vapor pressure of the solid and liqud phase must be equilbrium.
#
# If a sample of vapor is heat in a "closed, rigid container" there is no change in volume.
#
# For Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 4H+(aq) + 2SO4 2-(aq) => 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l); anode is composed of lead; cathode is composed of lead oxide.
#
# While battery is discharging: Pb => Pb2+ + 2e-
#
# During recharge process, lead sulfate is converted to lead oxide at the anode (since this is oxidatio, it occurs here).
#
# As the battery (cell solution is acidic) discharges: it should initially have a pH less than 7.0. As rxn progresse and uses H2SO4, the acidity should decrease to neutrality.
#
# Sulfuirc acid is a lewis acid (electron acceptor) which can donate two protons (diprotic).
#
# Sulfuric acid is not amphoteric (meaning being both an acid and a base) since its not a good base.
#
# The low chemical reactivity of nitrogen gas is most likely caused by the triple bond holding each nitrogen atom in the molecule. Triple bond is strong so mcuh energy is required to disccoiate them resulting in their low reactivity.
#
# Increasing the length of the plates increases the capacitance b/c it increases the area. (C=keA/d)
#
# Total internal reflection occurs when the angle of the incidence is greater than the critical angle.
#
# If an angle of incidence is x degrees and its totally interanlly reflect, then the critical angle has to be a value at or less than 45 degrees.
#
# Fiber optic cables transmit data at or near the speed of light, whereas copper wiring doesn't.
#
# Resistivity of a current carrying component immediately implies dissipation of heat.
#
# CH3COOH (aq) <=> CH3COO- (aq) + H+(aq): when conc of acetic acid is equal to conc of its conjugate base (caetate ion), the pH of the solution will be equal to the pKa of the acid.
#
# Buffer will prevent dramatic change dramatic changes in pH.
#
# Reduction of acetic acid will initally produce an aldehyde. Further reduction will produce an alcohol.
#
# CaCl2 is a salt.
#
# Carbonic acid H2CO3 is a weak acid.
#
# The pH of a buffer solution depends on the ratio of the concentration of acid to base, not their absolute quantities; DILUTION OF A BUFFER SOLUTION SHOULDN"T AFFECT THE pH.
#
# Y=stress/|strain| = (F/A)/(deltaL/Lo)
#
# Ionic radius increases => stability of corersponding anion also increases (since the negative charge is distributed over a larger volume) => larger halides are more stable as anions. Larer hydrogen halides are more likely to undergo deprotonate and are stronger acids.
#
# Specific heat of a substance = quantitiy of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of the substance by one degree.
#
# if cmpd 1 has a specific heat 2x that of cmpd2; temp of cmpd1 will be raised by half as much as cmpd2 after heating for an equilvaent time.
#
# Viscotiy, solubility, and bp are all dependent on intermolecular forces.
#
# Mass is not dependent on intermolecular forces but on its atomic composition.
#
# If in a rxn, one reactant breaks down into several components, it can be classified as decomposition.
#
# A double displacement rxn requires 2 reactants.
#
# In an acid-base rxn, you know that water and salt are formed as products.
#
# When water is added to sol w/ carbon dioxide, it will produce an acid solution (carbonic acid!).
#
# Ca2_ carbonate is insoluble in water.
#
# Binding energy is equal to mass defect of the nucleus times the speed of light squared.
#
# Because a neutron is electircally neutral, it doesn't interact either w/ the magnetic field or the electric field.
#
# Both magnetic and electric field depend on the charge on the particle => if charge of particle is zero => force all zero.
#
# Fission rxn can be initiated by combarding nuclei w/ neutrons. Bombarding nuclei with protons will not work as well b/c protons are positively charged => would experieince repulsion from positively charged nucleus and therefore not be able to get within close proximitiy of it.
#
# In competitive inhibition, Km increases.
#
# pH will effect Km for a given rxn b/c enzymes are proteins and the pH of a solution can intere w/ the 2nd and tertiary structure of a protein which can make the enzyme less likely to recognize the substrate.
#
# E=mc*delta(T).
#
# The maximum force that an object can sustain w/o sliding is equal to u_s * Fn= u_s m g. (not dependent on velocity!)
#
# Pascal's principle: say object A transits pressure to object B and want to maximize force of B… if area B is large, then to keep the same proportionarlity Fb is mangifed. Pascal's principle state that the pressure exerted on a fluid is transmitted throughout the entire fluid.
#
# Experiment: if going to be adding water to a sample, the sample does not need to be anhydrous.
#
# Visible light extends from about 400nm (violet) to 700nm (red).
#
# If the absorbance wavelelngth increases as one moves down a periodic table, then the 1swt transitions energy must decrease.
#
# If the equivalence point is greater than 7 and it starts off below 7... then know that it’s a weak acid (could be HF?).
#
# NaF: basic salt; LiCl: neutral salt
#
# There are 3 rules that can help identify whether a cehmical species will form acid, basic, or pH neutral solutions: 1) the acididity of an element increases as one moves to the right or down the periodic table; 2) the conjugate base (or acid) of a strong acid (or base) forms pH neutral solutions; 3) the conjugate base (or acid) of a weak acid (or base) is a weak base (or acid).
#
# Fe3+: weak acid (Fe3+ is the conjugate acid of Fe(OH)3, a weak base.
#
# I-: pH neutral (I- is the conjugate base of HI, a strong acid.
#
# BH3: weak base (Bis to the left of O -- rule #1)
#
# H2S: weak acid (S is below O - rule 1)
#
# Ca2+: weak acid (Ca2+ is the conjugate acid of Ca(OH)2, a weak base; rule #3)
#
# Cl-: pH neutral (Cl- is the conjugate base of a strong acid - rule 2)
#
# Mixing 10mL each of 1.0M HI and 1.0M KOH would make 0.5M KI b/c you are doubling the volume… to make 1M KI, we need 2.0M of each HI and KOH.
#
# Benzene is nonpolar.
#
# Neutralization rxn is exoterhmic.
#
# H-F has greater electronegativity difference than N-H or D-H.
#
# If the rxn of an acid and a base is exothermic, then the dissociation of water may be written as: H2O + heat <=> H+ and -OH; therefore, if temp is increased, the equilibrium will shift to the right and pH will decrease. Note that the conc of -OH will also increase such that the pH _ pOH will be less than 14 at temp > 25 deg C.
#
# CH3OH => CH3OH (Aq)_ n odissocation! 1 particle/mole.
#
# HCl -> H+ (aq) + Cl-(aq) full dissocation => 2 particles per mole
#
# The lewis dot structure for ozone (O3) is: GEOMETRY (trigonal planar - central oxygen has 3 grps of electrons; SHAPE (bent - one of the grps of electrons is a lone pair)
#
# Oxygen is very reactive => has high potential energy (low stability)
#
# The oxidatoin states of the atoms in a pure element such as F2 and O2 are zero.
#
# Oxygen has a higher bond dissociation energy compared to Fluorine b/c there are two covalent bonds btw the O atoms while there is only btw the F atoms.
#
# The rates of all chemical rxns increase w/ temperature; remember, shifting an equilbirum is a different story.
#
# Halogens act as a catalyst for the destruction of ozone. CATALYSTS lowers the activation energy (energy of the transition state ) => catalyst makes transition state more stable.
#
# O3 + hf => O2 + O ; this rxn is endothermic.
#
# Magnetic forces can do NO work; they are incapable of changing the KE of a particle => delta(KE)=0.
#
# A proton and an electron, traeling with identical celocities enter a region of uniform magnetic field. If the magnetic force on neither particle is zero, all of the following are true. Since the proton and electron carry the same charge magntidue, the strengths of the magnetic force felt by the proton and electron will be identical. Since proton i smore massive than the electron, the proton's acceleration will be much less than that of teh electron (Newton's 2nd law); Magnetic forces can do no work => incapable of changing the KE of a particle.
#
# If a solution w/ a pH of 11 is diluted w/ pure water until the volume is decreased by a factor of 10, the pH will then equal 10 b/c diluting a basic solution would result in a solution w/ a pH closer to neutrality.
#
# Important criteria for an ideal gas: the moecluels have nelgigible volume; the molecules don't experience intermolecular forces; the molecules don't liqufey at low temperature.
#
# Nelgiglbe mass is NOT a criterion for an ideal gas.
#
# Both sound and string waves involve the displacement of matter (as opposed to light waves).
#
# Megaphone itself facilitates mechanical to sound energy. The whole process is chemical to mechanical to sound to heat.
#
# Sound waves don't pass easily thru a solid wood b/c a poor impedance match would result in good relfection and poor transmission of the wave.
#
# Spreading angle: delta(theta) = lambda/d ; A voice projected through a megaphone has a better defined direction than an unaided voice b/c the megaphone reduces diffraction by having a larger projection hole.
#
# Trichlorofluoromethane: CCl3F… Carbon is sp3 hybridized => tetrahedral.
#
# Light doiesn't travel thru metal wire (ie. Copper).
#
# The lower the frequency of electromagnetic radiation, the lower the index of refraction.
#
# In general, EM radiation w/ a high freq is more easily absorbed (or bent or scattered).
#
# Total internal reflectoin : n1>n2.
#
# Frequency of a wave doesn’t' change when go into a different medium but its speed and lambda do.
#
# v=c/n
#
# When dealing w/ electron configuration of ions, substract from highest energy level: Zn: [Ar]4s^2 3d^10 => Zn2+: [Ar]3d^10 ????????????
#
# Whenever you use a manometer, you have to assume that the gas is ideal and that the gas is chemically and physically immiscible w/ mercury.
#
# The enthalpy of formation of HCl (g) from H2(g_ and Cl2(g_ is -92.3 kG/mol. The pressure measured at equil is lower than the pressure imediately following the rxn. After one hr the rxn is at equil and will not be generating any net heat, so temp should equal RT. B/c rxn is exothermic, gas expands intially, causing the pressure reading to peak. As equil is established, the gas cook and contracts and teh final pressure reading at equil will be to lower than the intial peak.
#
# Due to moelcular mass, each mmH2o in the manometer represent less than that of each mmHg.
#
# All intermolceular forces cause th emoeclules to ccupy less volume and exert less pressure than they would otehrwise b/c individual molecules are grouping themselves together.
#
# Gases are compressible.
#
# Viscosity is related to the strength of the intermolecular forces.
#
# Fluid w/ low fiscosity flowing faster through a narrow segment of a hydraulic system has a lower internal pressure (Bernoulies).
#
# SHAPE: BF3 (trigonal planar); PH3, NH3 (trigonal pyramid); H2O (Bent); CH4 (tetrahedral)..
#
# Only transverse waves are capable of being polarized. Sound waves are longitudinal and cannot be polarized.
#
# Cell voltage = E_red + E_oxid
#
# Standard temperature and pressure: 273K and 1atm
#
# Temperature of a gas is a measure of the average kinetic energy of that gas.
#
# When looking for the voltage in a diagram, make sure that there isn't a transformer. A transformer steps up the voltage!
#
# The voltage across a capacitor's plates does not increase with the introduction of a dielectric.
#
Why is it important to insure that the patient is not in electrical contact with the ground while the defibrillator is in use?
When there is no ground connection, all the current is forced through the patient's heart, despite the relatively large resistance of the patient's body. However, if the patient is in contact w/ the ground, this provides a path of far less resistance than the patient's body, resulting in most of the current flowing through the ground, rather than through the patient. This will render the defibrillator ineffective.
# For electrodes, want to increase the area of the electrode to distribute the current and reduce the current density… so the person will be less likely to be burned.
#
# E=0.5kQV
#
# The more basic the leaching solution, the more hydrogen is likely to be released. This will result in a larger reading for the pH dependent charge.
#
HNO3 => HNO2 => H2N2O2 => N2O => N2; If all the oxygen in the nitric acid is converted to water, how many additional equivalents of acid will be consumed during the porduction of 5M nitrogen.
Each mole of nitrogen is a bimolecular molecule. Therefore to produce 5 moles of N2, you would need 10 moles of HNO3. Ten moes of nitric acid contain thirty moles of oxygen. TO convert this oxygen into water, you would need 60 moles of hydrogen. The 10 moles of nitric acid provides only 10 moles of hydrogen ions; therefore you would need another 50 moles, which is the same as 50 equivalents of acid.
# Power = Energy/time; where time is in seconds (3600 seconds/hour!)
#
# Minimum frequency of light that can cause a metal to eject electrons is called the threshold frequency and can be determien from the work function of the metal. Say an electron in metal must receive at least x electron-volts of energy in order to be ejected. ANY SURPLUS ENERGY WILL BE CONVERTED TO KE OF THE ELECTRONS. The energy of incident light is equal to hf. The KE of the electron that is ejected from the metal is hf-x.
#
# When orbitals from different atoms with the same sign overlap to form bonds, they are called bonding orbitals. Bonding orbitals have lower energy than their component atomic orbitals. ( ++ and -- are bonding)
#
# When oribtals from different atoms with opposite signs overlap, they form antibonding orbitals. Antibonding orbitals are higher in energy than the original atomic orbitals. ( +- is antibonding)
#
# Longer conjugated polyenes have a greater number of pi orbitals, and therefore a greater # of possible molecular orbitals. This produces smaller energy transitions, allowing for absorption of photons at a lower energy and longer wavelegnth.
#
# The energy level transition from lowest to highest will go from sp to sp2 to sp3.
#
# Principle quantum number determine which principal energy level the electron is in, n=1, n=2, etc. The second quantum # is the azimuthal number designated by l which determines the subshell s,p,d, or f. Azimuthal quantum number can also be referred to as angular momentum quantum number. The 3rd quantum #, the magnetic quantum number specifies the particular orbitals within a subshell and is given by m_l.
#
# sqrt(2)/2 = 0.7
#
# 5megavolt = 5e6 volts
#
# If the equivalents are equal (equal normalities), the neutralization of 25mL of weak base will require a full 25mL of strong acid.
#
# Electric field has magnitude given by kQ/r^2 where k is the electrostatic constant, Q is the magnitude of the charge, and r is the distance btw the charge and the point in question.
#
# For electric field, it points AWAY FROM POSITIVE CHARGE and TOWARDS A NEGATIVE CHARGE.
#
# Equilibrium constant for step 1 is equal to k_1/k_neg1 where k_1 is the rate constant for the forward rxn in step 1 and k_neg1 is the rate constant for the reverse reaction.
#
# k_1/k_neg1 does not imply that a rxn is at equilibrium. In fact k_1/k_neg1 is the Equilibrium Constant; and wil only equal 1 at equilibrium if the concentrations of the reactants and products are exactly equal at equilibrium.
#
# Increasing the concentration of reactants in a voltaic cell increases both the voltage and the spontaneity of the reaction. If the rate of the rxn changes, then the volage or potential also changes. If the concentration of reactants is increased, then the reaction will move more quickly to the right, producing more electrons at the anode and using more at the cathod, thus increasing voltage. deltaG=-nFE so if voltage increases, the spontaneity increases as well.
#
# A positive cell potential means that the reaction is pstonaneous and the cell must be galvanic.
#
# The species on the left-hand side of the cell diagram is the anode; and the species on the right hand side is the cathode.
#
# natural log of 10 = 2.3
#
# Standard conditions: 1 atmosphere pressure and 1 molar concentration for each reacting species.
#
# For Zn(s)|Zn2+(0.2 M)||Cu2+(0.02M)|Cu(s)… E = E_degree - RT/ZF*ln(Zn2+/Cu2+)
#
# E=qV … doesn't matter the distane that the charge is accelerated through. All that matters is the magnitude of the potential difference that accelerates the charge, and the magnitude of the charge itself.
#
# The direction of the electric field is the direction in which a positive charge would accelerate in that field.
#
# By doubling the current, we double the rate at which electrons are produced. However, the energy of each electron doesn't change. Since the max freq of an Xray depends only on the electron's energy, increasing the # of electrons produced will have no effect on the max req of the X-rays produced.
#
# Lower energy Xrays are absorbed more easily than higher energy Xrays. Materials with high densities absorb Xrays more readily than materials w/ lower densities.
#
# If buffer region will be flat, not steep.
#
# Molality of a solution is the number of moles of solute per kg of SOLVENT.
#
# DNA is a highly polar substance is therefore more soluble in an aqueous solution than in a solvent composed mostly of ethanol.
#
# When SHM occurs, the speed is maximum at the equilibrium position.
#
# For a horizontal spring0mass system, the equilibrium position of the mass corresponds to the spring being neither stretched nor compressed. But with a verticale spring-mass system, the stiutation is different. When the mass is in equilibrium, the string is stretched.
#
# T = 2*pi*sqrt(m/k).
#
# System with two springs (both springs k) is replaced by a singple spring system with spring constant k'. The ratio of k' to k is 2.
#
# The net force on a spring is Fnet=ma=T-mg => T=mg+ma (up is defined as the positive direction here). Therefore, the equilibrium length of the spring would be greater when the elevator is accelerating upward.
#
# The energy difference between the n=inf and the n=1 state is the binding energy of the electron in the hydrogen atom.
#
# The resistance of an electrolyte increases with decreasing temperature.
#
# The reason that the battery "goes dead" with decreasing temperature is that the viscosity of the electrolyte increases. At higher viscosities the ions are moving much slower, which leads to an increase in resistance and a decrease in the power output.
#
# As current passes through a resistor, the tempreature of the resistor will increase. A moving electron hits an atom which is basically stationary and starts it in motion. This means that the electron transfer some of its kinetic energy to the atom. So the electron's KE actually decreases as a result of the collision.
#
# As current passes through a resistor, the temp of the resistor will increase. The average KE of the atoms in the resistor increases as a result of the collisions w/ the ELECTRONS in the current.
#
# blood pH can be adjusted rapidly by changes in the rate of CO2 exhalation.
#
# For a graph showing titration of 0.01M H3PO4 with 10M NaOH. The region of the tiration curve with the concentration of H2PO4 become equal to that of PO42- is the second plateau phase… [Kaplan FL2 q#21]
#
# Metals have partially filled valence bands. This means that there are low energy unoccupied atomic orbitals.
#
# Heat increases the conductivity of a semiconductor by breaking covalent bonds and by raising electrons to a higher energy level.
#
# Phosphorous and boron atoms enhance the conductivity of silicon b/c they have different number of valence electrons.
#
# Stimulated emission of photons is necessary in order to produce a coherent beam of light instead of spontaenous emissionh
#
# If something is less stable tha another, than it has a higher potential energy, and more energy will be reased…
#
# The shape of a molecules of NH3 is pyramidal. According to the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory, or VSEPR theory, a central atom surrounded by three bonding pairs of electrons and one lone pair of electrons has a pyramidal geometry.
#
# When heat is absorbed during a reaction, delta(H) is positive. The melting of ice require absorption of heat to disrupt the attractions btw molecules, so the change in enthalpy is positive.
#
# Impulse is equal to change in momentum… so keeping impulse constant, doubling the mass will halve v_o.
#
# As the angle of the barrel to the horizontal increases, the work done doesn't change b/c the air pressure behind the disk is unchanged. The softball will still aquire a KE equal to 0.5mv^2,
#
# The particle theory of light is supported by the fact that energy of light is quantized.
#
# E=hf; The photon energy is a property of a particle and frequency is a property of a wave.
#
# Helium, a noble gas, is very unreactive and would almost certainly not react with any of the spceies in the furnace where the following rxn takes place: CO2+C<=>2CO. B/c helium doesn't react with any of the psecies that participate in the equil, the equil is unaffected by the addition of He. Even tho it increases the total pressure inside the sys, the partial pressures of the reacting gases are uncahnged (Dalton's law) and tehrefore they keep on behaving as if the helium weren't present.
#
# CO2(g) + C(s) <=> 2CO(g); since there are more moles of gas in the products htan in the reactants, there is an increase in entropy meaning tha thte sign of the change is positive entropy.
#
# The pressure of a gas is directly proportion to its temperature in Kelvins.
#
# The vast majority of covalent compounds are comprised exclusively of nonmetallic elements, whereas binary ionic compounds are made up of a metal and a nonmetal.
#
# NaI is an ionic bond b/c its composed of a metal and nonmetal. HBr(g) is covalent b/c they are both nonmetals.
#
# an aqueous solution of an ionic compound conducts electricity.
#
# The higher the temperature, the greater the average kinetic energy of the components of the reaction.
#
# High levels of CO2 in the atmosphere would result in CO2 dissoled in the waer. When CO2 dissolves in water it becomes carbonic acid, causing a decrease in the pH>
#
# Iontermolecular forces and the physical structure of the molecules determien the structure of the string at the molecular level. Physically stretching the string affects the intermolecular forces (which are primarily electrostatic) and the bond lengths within the molecules. Therefore, th emechanism that supplies the tension in teh string at the molecular level is stretching bond lengths.
#
# Buoyance force is the weogjt of the solution that is displaced (NOT THE OBJECT)
#
What verticale forces are acting on a balloon as it ascends in a pool?
Only water pressure, buoyancy, and gravity act on the balloon. Of these, gravity and buoyancy act in the verticle direction, while water pressure acts perpendicularly to all surfaces of the balloon.
# H2(g) produced at the cathode b/c of reaction 2H+(aq) + 2e- => H2.
#
What is the electron configuraiton of the metal ion produced when Ca reacted water?
You have to do it for Ca2+ b/c when Ca reacts with water. Ca(2) + 2H2O(l) => Ca2+ (aq) + 2OH-(aq) + H2(g). Ca2+ has 18 electrons instead of the 20 electrons that Ca(s) has.
# The energy required to remove an electron from an atom is the ionization potential. The reactivity of a metal depends on its ionization potential. Therefore, potassium has the smaller ionization potential than Sodium (which is above it), and therefore will react more vigorously.
#
# In insulators, the valence electrons are tightly bound to their atoms, and it takes a great amount of energy to free them from their atomic energy levels.
#
# In water, carbonate will undergo the following reaction: CO32–(aq) + H2O(l) ® HCO3–(aq) + OH–(aq). Red litmus paper will turn blue in a base. Thus, C is the best answer.
#
# HCl reacts with CO32– to form CO2(g).
#
# The solution containing nickel(II) ions is green-colored. The color arises because nickel(II) ion has partially filled d orbitals and the electrons in the lower energy d orbitals absorb visible light to move to the higher energy d orbitals.
#
# The maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons is always E  W. Note that because Metal L has WL > E, the maximum K = 0 (there are no photoelectrons).
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# At the core of the photoelectric effect is the concept that even a single photon can release a photoelectron, but only if that photon carries enough energy. Intensity in the photon picture is a measure of how many photons are arriving each second, not how much energy each photon has. This means that photoelectrons can be released even when only a few high-energy photons are present. If, however, the photon energy is too low, even a flood of photons will not release any photoelectrons.
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# The precipitation reactions in Table 1 are the result of mixing aqueous solutions of cations and anions. The ionic compounds switch the ions with which they are paired. These are reactions of the type AB + CD => AD + CB, where one of the products is a precipitate. This type of reaction is a metathesis reaction.
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# If the liquid and the vapor have the same temperature, then the average kinetic energy of the liquid and the vapor must be the same. The molecules that escape from the liquid are those with greater than the average kinetic energy. It takes energy for the molecules to escape from the liquid.
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# Within still air, the speed of sound remains constant.
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# A change in momentum can be accomplished by the action of a force F over a time interval delta(t). This product, F*delta(t), is referred to as an impulse.
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