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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the routes of sound conduction to the inner ear?
air and bone
What is the function of the middle ear?
amplify pressure oscillation during transmission from air to liquid
What is the acousitc stapedius reflex?
a loud sound causes a large discharge of the cochlear n which acitvites vent cochlear nucleus, sup olive, facial n. which causes tensing of stapedius muscle
Where is endolymph?
in membraneous labyrinth
Where is perilymph?
within the two scalae
What produces endolymph?
stria vascularis
What produces perilymph?
periosteal lining
What is the composition of endolymph?
low protein and Na, High K
What is the composition of the perilymph?
NaCl, low protein
How are varoius frequencies separated?
Low-helicotrema, high-near windows
What is the modiolus?
The bone surrounding the bony labyrinth
Where does the scala tympani run?
round window to helicotrema
Where does the scala vestibule run?
helicotrema to oval window. it is continuous with the bony vestibular labyrinth
What are the parts of the membranous labyrinth?
cochlear duct and organ of corti
What connects the membranous labyrinth together?
ductus reunions
What does the endolymph flow thru?
the endolymphatic sac and the endolymphatic duct
How many inner row?
How many outer row?
Hear cells receive inhibitory input from what?
the olivocochlear nerve fibers
What is the mem pot gradient between the endolymph and the hair cell?
What opens the siral ligaments mecahnosensitive K channels?
movement of cilia towards the spiral ligament
What happens when K channels open?
depols, triggering Ca entry and NT release of Glut which activates cochlear nerve fibers
What is the trap door theory?
Movement of stereocilia away from the spiral ligament hyperpols the cell, but an intermediate position leads to a reduced level of K to maintain resting potential
What is the function of outer cells?
amplification of cilia movements
What forms the trapezoid body?
ventral cochlear nucleus projects to the ipsilateral and contralateral
Where does the dorsal cochlear nucleus project?
contralateral lemniscus terminating in lat lemniscus
What is the Rinne's Test?
mastoid process then lateral to ear, which is louder
What if bone conduction is louder is louder in Rinne Test?
conductive deafness
What if Webber test is louder in one ear?
conductive deafness in that ear
What is conduction deafness?
dec vibration of basilar membreane, dec air conduction, low frequencies
What causes conduction deafness?
foreign obejcts, infection
What is sensorineural deafness?
loss of both air and bone, high frequencies caused by haircell damage
What is neural deafness?
unilateral hearing loss because of leasion to auditory nerve
What is central deafness?
lesion to CNS