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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the basic components of the audiometer?
- Power switch
- Interrupter
- Stimulus mode switch
- Frequency control/dial
- Hearing level control dial (attenuator)
- Output selector
What are the special components of the audiometer?
- Masking/noise interrupter and level dial
- Microphone input
- Recorded speech input (tape/CD)
- Special tests
- Patient response signal
- Patient response microphone
- Computer interface
- Printer interface
What are the types of output transducers?
-Earphones: supraaural & insert.
- Bone conduction vibrators/ oscillators
- Loudspeakers
Why is calibration of your equipment important?
to ensure that the data collected is valid.
What are the two organizations that set the standards for us to calibrate our equipment?
ANSI and ISO (which stands for?)
- American National Standards Institute
- International Standards Organization.
What needs to be Electroacoustically calibrated?
The output transducers.

These include ...
earphones, bone oscillator, soundfield/loudspeakers
According to what parameters do we need to calibrate our equipment?
Frequency
Intensity
Linearity (which means?)
Duration
Rise/fall times (which means?)
Distortion
linearity -
rise/fall times - the time taken to reach full intensity from 0SPL
What 2 things can we do to calibrate our equipment on a day to day basis?
Listening Check and Biological Calibration

(why?)
to avoid getting invalid data.
Listening check involves...?
- Turn audiometer on
- Put headphones on
- For both headphones, set HTL dial to 40 dB and turn frequ. dial to 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000 to be sure all freqs are coming through clearly, listen for static/distortion, intermittency.
- Set freq to 1000 Hz and move HTL across the range of intensities (0-110dBHL) to make sure intensity gets louder and softer. listen for static/distortion, intermittency.
What else?
Wiggle the headphone cables where they enter the audiometer and headphones. listen for static, extraneous noise or intermittency.
If all's well proceed with biological calibration.
Biological Calibration involves what?
Checking the hearing of someone whose hearing thresholds are known.
Thresholds should be +/- 5dB to those previously recorded.
If not, does the problem lie with the test equipment or with the testing environment.
How can we calibrate the testing environment?
Control the permissible ambient noise levels with ears covered and ears uncovered.
What's involved in a Basic Audiological Evaluation?
CH
VO
P
S
I
Case History
Visual and Otoscopic exam
Pure tone audiometry
Speech audiometry
Immittance audiometry
Is the Case History really that important?
YES!! It's the most important information necessary for establishing an audiologic otologic diagnosis.
What does the audiologist do during the case history?
Explore the patients chief complaint/history/symptoms with a line of questioning.
Questions will lead organically to other questions.
What is the rationale for obtaining a Case History?
Diagnostic impression.
Planning audiological remediation.
Referrals to other professionals.
Basis for further testing.
What information is included in the Case History?
- Identifying/Biographical Info
- Info on Auditory/ Communicative Status
- Medical Information
- Developmental Information
- Educational Information
- Family Information
What sorts of Biological/Identifying info do we want to collect?
Name, DOB, gender
Address, phone#
SS# and medical insurance
Referral source.
What kind of info on Auditory and Communicative status do we want to collect?
Presenting complaints
Specific symptoms
Previous testing and results
Previous recommendations.
What kind of Medical Info do we want?
Illnesses
Previous conditions
Symptoms and signs
Previous and current meds
Testing and results
Recommendations, follow up and results of other health pros
What kinds of Developmental Info?
Pregnancy
Delivery and birth
Early childhood milestones (hearing, speech, lang, motor).
What kinds of Educational Information do we want to collect?
Academic performance
Current school status
School personnel concerns.
What kinds of Family Information do we want to collect?
Hereditary/genetic factors
Family structure (?)
The above info will provide us with basis for further testing.
Hints for what may be required beyond the basic battery of tests.
The above info will give us hints as to what referrals we may need to make
- Medical
- Psychological
- Vocational
Format of a Case History is a matter of personal style and may take several forms
Form/questionnaire
Interview - open-ended, structured.
Combination
Case History forms/questionnaires
- May vary in length and detail
- May be completed in advance and reviewed/clarified in person.
- May be completed at time of session.
- Limitations!! Client's literacy skills, cognative level, fluency with english.
Case History Interviews
May be open ended, structured, combination
When to obtain a case history and why?
Before testing - guides testing
After testing - to avoid bias
During - to suppliment what you already know.
Time required for a case history depends on what?
Complexity of patient's history
Age
Cognitive level
Physical condition
Language skills
Reading skills
Rapport and comfort level
Cultural influences
Pragmatic considerations for conducting a Case History
- To create rapport:
- Introduce yourself, explain your role in the clinic.
- Address client with the appropriate title.
- Explanation of what you'll be doing.
- Ensure CONFIDENTIALITY!
- Can write down info gathered or video record the session.
- If recording, get permission.