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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
500 BC coined the term "atomos"
Democritus
1770's Law of Conservation of Matter
Lavoisier
1799 Law of Definite Proportions
Proust
1802 Law of Multiple Proportions & proposed the first Atomic Theory
Dalton
1897 discovered the electron
Thomson
1911 used the gold foil experiment to show the existence of a small, dense center (the nucleus)
Rutherford
1911 used the oil drop experiemnt to calculate the mass of the electron
Millikan
1913 proposed the model of orbiting electrons which would not lose energy and "fall" into the nucleus
Bohr
1916 reported the values of the charge and mass of the electrons
Millikan
1919 research lead to the discovery of the proton & performed earliest articificial transmutation
Rutherford
1932 discovered the neutron
Chadwick
1886 discovered the canal rays (later found to be protons)
Goldstein
transmutation
shooting alpha particles into different isotopes to form new isotopes that break down
modern atomic theory/model
Quantum Mechanical Model
Law of conservation of Mass
(Lavoisier) matter cannot be created or destroyed
Law of Definite Proportions
(Joseph Proust) proportions by mass of the elements in a given compound is always the same [e.g. water 1:8]
Law of Multiple Proportions
(Dalton) if two or more different compounds composed of the same two elements are analyzed, the masses of the second elemnt combined with a fixed mass of the first can be expressed as a ration of small whole numbers
Dalton's Atomic Theory
-elements composed of atoms which are indivisible particles
-atoms of same element are alike
-atoms of different elements have different masses
-compounds are formed by atoms of 2+ elements combining in definite whole number ratios
atom
smallest particle of an element that still reatins the properties of that element
electron cloud
outer region containin 7 energy levels
nucleus
center core of the atom containing protons and neutrons
3 main subatomic particles (even though there are 100+ known subatomic particles)
protons (+) neutrons electrons (-)
quarks
make up protons and neutrons
lepton
group electrons belong to
antiparticle
exact opposite in charge for every quark and lepton
1st subatomic particle discovered (when, by who, and how)
electron 1897 Thomson using the discharge tube (Crooke's tube, Cathode Ray tube)
electron charge measured by (who and experiment)
Millikan and the oil drop experiment
number of electrons in an atom determines:
physical and chemical properties
periodic law
the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number; there is a periodic repition of their physical and chemical properties
proton
one of the nucleons made up of two up quarks and one down quark p=uud
nucleus discovered (who and how)
Rutherford with the gold foil experiment
neutrons mass is _________ than protons mass
slightly greater
neutrons discovered (by and how)
Chadwick in transmutation experiment
when neutron decays...
a proton, electron, and antineutrino are released
neutrons made up of
one up quark and two down quarks n=udd
isotopes
different numbers of neutrons in an element
natural isotopes (#)
250
man-made isotopes (#)
1000+
atomic number (letter representation)
number of protons in the nucleus of the atom of that element (Z)
electrons and protons equal in ________ atoms
neutral
mass number (letter representation)
total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus (A)
amu
atomic mass unit= 1/12 mass of Carbon-12
a relative mass is reported in which each proton and neutron is given the value of
1
mass not a whole number b/c of
isotopes (average of all naturally occuring isotopes
periodic table developed by
Mendelev
Moseley arranged elements by...
nuclear charge/atomic number
horizontal rows
periods
vertical columns
groups/families
metals
left of stairstep
nonmetals
right of stairstep
metalloids
touching stairstep except Aluminum
representative elements
A's
alkali metals
group 1
alkaline earth metals
group 2
halogens
group 7
noble gases
group 8
transition metals
B's
inner transition metals (location and other name)
excert (rare earth elements)