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95 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Examples of Non-arbitrary excavation
A mayan temple complex with numerous small rooms AND a collapsed house, with some of the remnants of wall remaining
What is a midden ?
A garbage pit (waste products)
The principle of association can be usful to determine what context ?
Can be useful in establishing formal, spatial and temporal context
Which context can derive another - temporal and formal?
Possible to derive temporal from spatial AND sometimes possible to derive formal from spatial
What does the principle of superposition state ?
None - older below younger
The law of original horizontality is significan for the proper interpretation of ?
The law of superposition
The principle behind seriation is based on the observation that all styles:
First appear at minimal frequency, reach maximal frequency, then decline to minimal again.
What is dating method is obsidian hydration?
A relative dating method
What are relative dating methods ?
Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, seriation, obsidian hydration. F.U.N.
What determines atomic mass ?
Atomic mass is determined by both the number of protons and the number of neutrons
What does atomic number determine ?
Atomic number is determined by the number of protons and the chemical identity of an atom
T/F ?
Different elements vary in the number of protons. Different isotopes of an element vary in atomic number
Protons have a _______ charge
Protons have a positive charge
What does a neutron consist of ?
A neutron consists of a proton combined with an electron
What do all forms of radioactive decay involve ?
All forms of radioactive decay involve a change in atomic number
What is true of a beta particle ?
A beta particle consists of a nuclear electron
What is true of an alpha particle ?
An alpha particle consists of 2 neutrons and 2 protons AND an alpha particle possesses mass
What happens to mass when an atom loses a beta particle ?
(None)No change in mass
What happens to number when an atom loses a beta particle ?
It's atomic number goes up by one.
What happens to mass if an atom captures a nuclear electron ?
(none) nothing, electrons don't effect mass
What happens to atomic number if an atom captures a nuclear electron ?
Atomic number goes down by one (because number is determined by # of protons and electron bonds with free proton)
What happens to number if an atom loses an alpha particle ?
Number does down by 2 (because it loses 2 neutrons and 2 protons and the 2 protons determine the number)
What happens to atomic mass when an atom loses an alpha particle ?
Its atomic mass does down by 4 (because it loses 2 neutrons and 2 protons and all 4 have 1 AMU)
An unstable atom with atomic number of 20 and mass of 42 decays into atomic number of 21 and a mass of 42, what decay is most likely responsible ?
Beta emission (because the electron that is lost leaves a proton behind which increases the number based on protons and no change in mass because neutron and proton have same mass)
An unstable atom with atomic # of 20 and mass of 42 undergoes decay into a stable product with atomic number of 18 and mass of 38, what decay is most likely responsible ?
Alpha emission
Unstable atom with atomic number of 20 and mass of 42 undergoes decay into a stable product with atomic number of 19 and a mass of 42. What decay is responsible ?
Electron capture
Why does potassium-argon dating depend on volcanic activity ?
Only volcanic rock is re-melted which sets the K/Ar clock back to zero.
What atom is C14 created from ?
What is the stable daughter product that C14 decays into ?
C14 is formed/created via the process of ?
Neutron capture/proton loss
C14 (#=6,mass=14) decays into an atom with an atomic # of 7 and an atomic mass of 14. What form of decay is responsible for this ?
Beta emission
In K/Ar, k40 (#=19,mass=40) decays into Argon40 (#=18, ass=40). Which form of decay is resposible ?
electron capture
All unstable isotopes...
Exhibit the same decay curve
What is used to determine the absolute date of 500,000 year old bone excavated from above one layer of volcanic basalt and below a layer of volcanic ask tuff ?
Potassium-Argon dating
What method could be used to determine the absolute date of 44,000 year old bone excavated from above one layer of volcanic basalt and below another layer of volcanic basalt
Radio carbon dating
What methods can be determined the absolute date of 8,000 year old fired ceramic vessel ?
What methods can be determine the absolute date of 600,000 year old fired flint blade, found in primary context with charcoal ?
What methods could be used to determine the absolute date of 45000 year old fire pit/hearth built in/over clay soil and contain charcoal ?
Radio Carbon Dating & Thermoluminescense
What method used to determine absolute date of 120,000 year old fire pit/hearth built over clay soil and containing charcoal
What method used to determine the absolute dating of 60,000 year old completely fossilized bone excavated from above one layer of volcanic basalt and below anothe rlayer of volcanic basalt
None (electron spin resonance)
Used to determine 80,000 year old bone excavated from above one layer of volvanic and below another
None (too young for PAr dating)
What is true about earth's magnetic field ?
The strength of the earth's magnetic field has flucturated over time
What is paleomagnetic dating ?
An absolute dating method
3 parts argon; 1 parts potassium
=1.3BY x 2=2.6 BY
What is true of thermolumenescense
Can date artifacts up to 1MYA
Where are the older trees ?
The dendrochronology sequence is older in the united sates than it is in europe
What is due about the dating of the Shroud ?
Radiocarbon dating suggests that the Shroud of Turin cannot be the burial shroud of Jesus.
What is the half life of radiocarbon (C14)
How many half lives would it take to acheive a radioactive isotope stable daughter product of 1:1
1 half life
How many half lives would it take to acheive a radioactive isotope stable daughter product of 1:15
4 half lives
1 part parent; 31 parts daughter
5 half lives
What is true of bipeds ?
the medial feroal condyle is larger than the lateral fomoral condyle
What first appeard in Sub-Saharan Africa
Earliest hominids, earliest large brained hominids, & Earliest anatomically modern human.
Where/When did humans be traced to ?
All modern humans share a common ancestry that can be traced to sub-Saharan Africa & Available evidence suggests that all modern humans stem from a speciation event approximately 200 thousan years ago in sub-Saharan Africa.
Production differences between horticulture and argriculture everywhere in the world.
(All of the above)Horticulture always involves more extensive production than does argriculture & Horticulature always involves shifting-plot production, due to the lack of nutrient intensification & Agricultural production invovles permanent fields whereas horticulture involves less permanent gardens.
Planting differences between horticulture and agriculture everywhere in the world.
b & c (Agriculture always uses the plow to till fields, while horiculture uses digging sticks to plant gardens& Agriculture always involves intesitification methods while horticulture generally does not
what is true about rainforests and agriculture
Rainforest environments cannot support pure foraging & Simple agricultural production is more technologically complex than horicultural production
What is the correct order of the human subsistence patterns
foraging, horticulture, simple agriculture, patroalism, industrial agriculture
What subsistence patterns are sustainable when practiced in tropical rainforests ?
Swidden (slash and burn) horticulture
What is true about slash and burn horticulture ?
Slash and burn horticulture in rainforests is sustainable
What is true of productivity ?
Productivity refers to the amount of energy extracted from a unit area of land (energy out)
Industrial agriculture is more efficient than ?
Nothing !
What is more efficient than industrial agriculture
all of the above
What is moe sustainable than industrial agriculture
all of the above
What is true about irrigation ?
Irrigation agriculture in semi-arid or arid areas leads to salinization of the topsoil & One of the factors which reduces the sustainability of agriculture is topsoil loss or desertification.
What is true about the sustainability of industrial agriculture in america
Populations practicing indusstrial agriculture - as it is practiced in the US - are associated with a higher risk of a variety of cancers, including breast cancer, due to synthetic pesticides and fungicides.
What materials provide direct evidence of past human diets
Paleofeces (coprolites)
What goes agriculture almost always involve ?
Agriculture almost always involves both domesticated plant and domesticated animal production
The evacation of Lakeside Cave indicates what ?
Amoung humans, cultural needs can take precedence over caloric/nutritional needs, such as the production of tobacco or other ceremonial/mind-altering substances.
What is true of rainfall agriculture
Rainfall agriculture is more sustainable thatn irrigation agriculture & Iriigation agriculture would be more sustainable if it used drip irrigation
How does exposure to pesticide effect liklihood of breast cancer.
Exposure to pesticides used in industrial agriculture increases the risk of breast cancer
What is true about air ?
Warm air can hold more moisture than cold air.
What happens if population increases but the resource base remains constant
Population pressure increases
What happens to efficiency if energy output remains constant while energy input increases over time
Efficiency would decrease
What happens to efficiency if input remains constant while energy output increases over time
efficiency would increase
What is the truth about sythetic fertilizers and energy costs ?
All of the above (Synthetic fertilizers used in industrial agriculture are made from petroleum & Signigicant portion of the US oil consumption is due to industrial agriculture & Energy cost of the US food production is 10 times great than in Asia or Africa.
What is true about plants
Plants utilize carbon taken directly from the atmosphere
What did the last glacial advance (wurm/wisconsin) begin
130,000 years ago
When was the last glacial maximum
18,000-25,000 years ago
What is true about sea level during the last glacial maximum
Sea level was at least 120 meters (400 ft) lower than present
What is true about world temperature during last period of glaciation
Mean world temperature was lower than it is today
How often was the bering land bridge exposed during last glacial advance
How does the holocene compare in temperature to the pleistocene
the holocene epoch has been generally more humid than the pleistocene epoch
When did the lat period of glacial advance end
approx 10,000 years ago
How long did interglacial periods last during the pleistocene
average of 10,000 years
Production of few offspring
K-selected organisms
Relatively fast to mature
r-selected organisms
T or F
Animals are capabale of parental investment & Plants are capable of parental investment
Whale shark, largest fish what could you predict
slow maturation to adulthood
At the pleistocene/holocene boundary some humans shifted from foraging more K-selected animals to foraging more r-selected animals
What temperatures do grasses prefer
cool temperatures generally promote the growth of grasses
What is characteristic of domesticated wheat to wild wheat
shorter thinner awns
what is characterstic of wild wheat compared to domesticated wheat
thicker glumes (seed coats) & a self-shattering panicle
What are foragers more likely to forage for
Foragers are more likely to be able to successfully forage grains with thicker, less brittle, rachises
What is true of wild horses
Horses evolved in the New World and then dispersed to the old world across the bering land bridge & Humans evolved in the old world and then dispersed to the new world across the bering land bridge