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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the bones of the knee joint?
The femur, tibia, and patella.
What is the patella?
It is a sesamoid bone.
What is the function of the patella?
It attaches the quadriceps to front of tibia and protects anterior aspect of the knee joint.
What is a sesamoid?
A floating bone.
What is the largest sesamoid in the body?
The patella.
What are the Ligaments in the knee?
Medial Collateral ligament, Lateral Collateral Ligament, Anterior Cruciate Ligament, and the Posterior Cruciate Ligament.
What is the function of the Medial Collateral Ligament?
Provides stability to the medial aspect of the knee.
What is the function of the Lateral Collateral Ligament?
Provides stability to the lateral aspect of the knee.
What is the function of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament?
Keeps tibia from moving forward on the femur.
What is the function of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament?
Prevents tibia from moving backward on the femur.
What is the tough cartilage tissue of the knee called?
Menisci
Where are the menisci located?
The two menisci of the knee are located on the proximal ends of the tibia.
What is the function of the menisci?
prevents breakdown of bone and stabilize joint.
What are characteristics of the medial menisci?
It is shaped like a "c".
More firmly fixed to the tibia than the Lateral Meniscus.
Attached to the Medial Collateral Ligament, and therefore is more injury prone.
What are characteristics of the lateral menisci?
It is an outside "o" shaped cartilage.
Has more freedom of movement.
Has less risk of injury.
How many muscles are in the knee?
7 basic muscles.
What are the hamstring muscles?
Biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus.
What are the quadricep muscles?
vastus medialis, vastus laterlis, vastus intermedius, and rectus femoris.
What is the function of the biceps femoris?
Flexion of the knee.
What is the function of the semimembranosus?
Flexion of the knee.
What is the function of the semitendenosus?
Flexion of the knee.
What is the function of the vastus medialis?
Extention of the knee.
What is the function fo the vastus intermedius?
Extention of the knee
What is the function of the vastus lateralis?
Extention of the knee.
What is the function of the restuc femoris?
Flexion of the hip and extention of the knee.
What is the function of the Iliotibial Band?
The ITB is a tough connective tissue for the tensor fasiae latae and gluteus maximus.
Abducts the hip.
Provides lateral support of the knee.
Attaches indirectly into the distal femur, crosses the knee, and inserts into the proximal aspect of the fibula.
What is the Patellar Tendon?
It runs from patella to it's attachment on the tibial tuberosity.
Common site of injury.
How many bursa sacs are int eh knee?
13
What are the bursa sacs?
The Bursa sacs are fluid filled sacs used to reduce friction within the knee.
They are located on the bone where tendons attach.
They secrete synovial fluid.
What is valgus stress?
A lateral to medial force.
What is varus stress?
A medial to lateral force.
What is the mechanism of an ACL sprain?
Quickly changing directions and twisting lower leg.
Hyperextension.
May be accompanied by a popping sound.
What are the symptoms/signs of an ACL sprain?
Athlete is usually disabled, compains of knee giving away, collapsing, and popping.
Rapid edema and loss of knee function.
What is the treatment for an ACL sprain?
PRICE, immobilization, crutches.
Orthopedist referral necessary for surgical reconstruction.
What is the mechanism of a PCL sprain?
Athlete falls and a bent knee bears all weight.
Forceful hyperflexion.
Blow to anterior aspect of tibia.
What are the symptoms/signs of a PCL sprain?
May hear a pop, little swelling
What is the treatment for a PCL sprain?
PRICE, MD referral, can be rehabilitated without surgery.
What is the emchanism of a MCL sprain?
Blow to lateral aspect of knee.
Medial meniscus will most likely be injured as well because it is connected to the MCL.
What are the signs and symptoms of a first degree MCL sprain?
medial joint-line pain, little swelling, no joint laxity, full extension and flexion, discoloration.
What are the signs and symptoms of a second degree MCL sprain?
Mild swelling, discomfort, some joint laxity, discoloration.
What are the signs/symptoms of a thrid degree MCL sprain?
moderate to severe swelling, loss of function, great deal of joint laxity.
What is the treatment for a MCL sprain?
PRICE for first 72 hours.
IMRPRESS after 72 hours.
Mild injury may only need elastic wrap.
Severe injury should have knee immobillizer.
What is the mechanism for a LCL sprain?
A blow to the medial aspect of knee.
What are the signs/symptoms of a LCL sprain?
swelling, discoloration, discomfort, increasing joint laxity with increased degree of injury, loss of function.
What is the treatment for a LCL sprain?
PRICE for first 72 hours.
IMPRESS after 72 hours.
Elastic wrap or knee immobilizer depending on severity of injury.
What is Patellar Tendonitis?
Overuse disorder.
A.K.A. jumper's knee.
Quad weakness and tenderness over patellar tendon, minimal edema.
Treatment consists of ice, and restriction of activity level.
What is Patellar-Femoral Syndrome?
A.K.A. Chondromalacia.
Softening/wearing away of cartilage on the back of the patella.
Symptoms include pain and discomfort around the patella caused by patellar tracking problems.
Grinding sensation with flexion and extension.
Treatment consists of correcting patellar tracking problems, strengthening vastus medialis muscle, and developing flexibility of quads and hamstrings.
What is a Patella dislocation?
When the patella is forced to lateral aspect of knee, usually when the knee is bent and forced to twist inward.
EMS should be called immediately and athlete should be immobilized to prevent further patellar injury.
The treatment includes short immobilization, and strengthening around knee joint.
What are meniscal injuries?
Medial or lateral meniscal tear caused by a twisting movement of the knee or with hyperflexion/extension injuries.
Signs and symptoms include pain at joint line, problems weight bearing on it, clicking/cathcing/locking of joint, walk with a limp, unable to fully extend and flex knee, edema.
Used to be treated by a meniscectomy, Arthroscopic surgery is now used in which small instruments are used to enter the knee through tiny holes and only the small amount of torn meniscus is taken out.
What is Osgood-Schlatter Disorder?
It is an irritation to the tibial tuberosity caused by repetitive stress on the soft adolescent bones which can cause patellar tendon to partically pull away from bone.
Signs and symptoms include edema, pain and tenderness during activity and discomfort.
Treatment includes modification of activitiy to prevent further injury until healed. Conditionoften improves at age 16 or 17.
Bony growth may form at top of tibia even after symptoms disappear.