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24 Cards in this Set

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Individuals who are about the same age. Groups of non-kin individuals that span several villages and share a form of solidarity that cuts across domestica and lineage kin groups
Age-Mates. Example: the East African Samburu male pastoralists individuals 12-14 share the experience of 'becoming men' together
Egalitarianism
Primary sociel structure of the Hunter gathere society in which both males and females share essentiallyl the same power status. Example: Mbuti tribe
Fission and Fusion
Change in the pattern of band size in hunter-gathere societies; group size and composition change with seasonal fluctuations in the availabiltiy of water and other resources. Example: Cheyenne and !Kung
Transhumance (agropasturalism)
form of pastoralism organized around the seasonal migration between moutain pastures in warm season and lower altitudes the rest of the year. Only part of the group moves with the herd while thr rest remain at the village to raise the crops. Example : himalayas and European alps
What environments do foragers occupy?
hunter-gatheres typically occupy extremely arid, dry enviornments where farming/agricultural production is NOT possible. Lands close to the arctic cirle or deserts.
What kind of population densitites do hunter-gatheres have?
Extremely SMALL population densities often consisting of population bands between 30-50 individuals in order to support subsistence level production at a carrying capcity of less than 1/3 of the environmental constraints
Generalized reciprocity: economic dealings with non-kin...
pose a problem because BOTH parties do NOT abide by the rules of reciprocity, so you can be swindled or worse in such dealings
Who provides bulk of labor and food in bands?
Labor is shared equally. Males provde the meat through hunting where women spend time collecting/gathering fruits and nuts. Women's gathering job is MORE important because the food they gather provides the real BULK of ccalories in the hunter-gatherers species
What happens to older individuals who cannot produce food?
In hunter-gathere societies, they are relegated to positions of respect as guardians of knowledge and wisdom.
What kind of prestige does a band leader have?
typically does not have any 'real' prestige conveying upon him since all members found in band societies are found equal (egalitarian society). Holds a certain level of symbolic prestige in that this leader is well liked and trusted to redistribute goods fairly throughout the band members
When did food production develop?
around 12,000 years ago. In 1000 BC much of the world was covered by farmland
What is the main chracteristic of all hunting and gathering bands
All are SMALL societies which are made up of kinship (family based) bands consisting of less than 100 people. Very mobile communties
Birth Spacing
time between successive births. In pre-agricultural societies populations were kept small through prolonged lactation.
How does the big man in Melanesia gain allegiance
In melanasia there are no storable resources and land is scarce, so the big man hosts FEASTS to gain prestige, build alliances and increase the group's military strength to deter neighboring groups from attacking
How do tribal societies resolve conflicts
Through war with neighboring villages
How do band level societies resolve conflict
Through social control> usually all tribe members are interanlly monitored by the rest of the band and those that repetitively display disruptive behavior are often socially isolated as punishment. If the bad action becomes too much to hand, bands decide to move camp and abandon deviant band member.
all humans were foragers...
until 10000 years ago.
Pastoralism was totally confined to..
the old world unlike foraging and cultivation which still exist today
Types of cultivation
Plow agriculutre: turns and replenishes the soil and involves significantly shorter fallow periods than does horticulture. Fields are left fallow for no more than a year.
Irrigation agriculture: depends on artifically constructed dams and ditches. Irrigation water contains silt and nutrients that are automatically deposited on the fields.
Earth-diving
Done my melonasians: construct a gigantic tower, each man builds his own diving platform. Each level of the tower represents part of the body. Men select vines to protect their fall and each man diver must measure the vine very well and barely touch the ground when they dive.
Tribe that engages in horticulture
The mayans. Corn beans and squash are all planted in same holes. Fields have to rest for a period of time FALLOW.
Angkor Wat
temple complex at Angkor, Cambodia, built by King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. Become a symbol for Cambodia, and the country's prime attraction for visitors
Raises livestock and crosses Yaks and cwos to produce a...
zomo: sherpa of nupal
Hunter-gatherer societies are defined by the following chracteristics
-Nature driven economy: everything comes directly from nautre
-Marginal Environments: use lands that are not capable of producing agriculture
-Band organized, kinship led societies. Groups<100 people with either family or marriage/kinship ties