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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mars and Jupiter-belt—rocks
Jupiter's family of asteroids
Earth Crossers
Apollo class can hit NEO—near earth objects
Oort Cloud
spherical cloud surrounding solar system, made opf comet dust, 50,000AU
Kuiper's Belt
outside Neptune –made up of leftover planetismals
small piece in space that create meteors
light from burning up in our atmosphere
rock from space on the ground
part of sun we see about 500 miles thick-5800K
chromo sphere
pink –10,000miles above photosphere—15000K
corona and holes
outer atmosphere and 1,000,000K+--areas which have no corona are called holes.
how much energy (an object) or the sun gives off—we use sun as standard unit of 1 solar lum
convection zone
area just below the stars surface that energy moves outward and undulates sun surface
radiation zone
area around core of sun that moves the energy
15,000,000K, dense and all fusion takes place here
helio seismology
study of convection undulations below surface
salt and pepper texture on surface due to convection
magnetic storms cooler by 2000K on suns surface
sunspot cycle
11 years if you look at numbers and 22 years if you look at total polarity switch
loops of gasses that connect paired sunspots
hot storms that last 5 to 20 minutes 5million degrees sends out a lot of x-rays and solar radiation
combining hydrogen into helium which releases energy (only in core)
p-p reaction
reaction that takes place in suns core—4 hydrogen to 1 helium
E energy m=mass c = speed of light
essentially mass-less particles that are created at suns core and may let us study the core
distance to an object with parallax of one arc sec—3.26 light years
Proper Motion
amount stars moves across the sky—most are to far away to see proper motion
apparent brightness
brightness of star in night sky
Magnitude scale
each magnitude number changes by 2.5 times up or down
Absolute magnitude
how bright star would appear at 10 parsecs
mass luminosity
the more massive the star the brighter it is.
radius luminosity
temperature relationship—to truly to know the brightness of star you need to know size and temp
visual binaries
a star that can be seen as two stars and used to get masses
spectroscopic binaries
cannot see the companions but spectrum lines tells them they are there
spectroscopic parallax
uses HR diagram to measure distance to stars
eclipsing binaries
two stars that block each others light --easy to measure masses of stars
luminosity classes
I Supergiants
II Bright Giants
III Giants
IV Subgiants
V Dwarfs (=Main Sequence Stars)
VI Subdwarfs
VII White Dwarfs
globular cluster
spherical, found in halos of galaxies and contain old stars
galactic cluster
collection of galaxies held together by gravity
main sequence turnoff point
star leaves main sequence as it get old
moleculoar clouds
large cool gas cloud that have many materials and dust-star formation
forming star
gasses ejected as star forms
thermal vs degenerate pressure
thermal –out—degenerate stops and collapses inward
brown dwarfs
failed stars
hydrogen shell burning
older star having fusion moved out from core
helium flash
low mass star trying helium fuel
white dwarf star
sun dies as core called white dwarf surrounded by planetary nebula
planetary nebula
glowing cloud of gas ejected from a low mass star at the end of its life.
CNO cycle
more massive stars than sun use this to fuse hydrogen into helium.
Iron stage
last fuel most massive stars can use
huge explosion--type 1 binary star death type II one large star explosion
nuetron star
1.4 to 6 solar mass---10 mile collapsed core of neutrons. Corpse of a high mass star supernova
electron degeneracy
that which stops white dwarf from collapsing any further
white dwarf size
.1 to 1.4 solar masses—sun ends up this way 10000 miles across—earth size
white dwarf limit
maximum size .1to 1.4
accretion disk
rapidly rotating disk that falls inward as it orbits a starlike object (i.e white dwarf)
the dramatic brightening of a star that lasts for a few weeks and then subsides.
white dwarf supernova
supernova that occurs whan a white drawf reaches it’s the white drawf limit and explodes like a bomb—type 1a
massive star supernova explosion
type II one large star explosion
nuetron stars
1.4 to 6 solar mass---10 mile collapsed core of neutrons
nuetron degeneracy
stops further collapse
rotating neutron star
black hole
bottomless pit, light cannot escape—6 solar masses and above
schwarz child radius
the size of a black holes event horizon
event horizon
once you cross you cannot return, of a black hole
place in a black hole where gravity crushes matter
gamma ray bursts
matter falling in to black holes giving large explosions of gammas
28,000 - 50,000
Blue White
7,500 - 10,000
White Yellow
6,000 - 7,500
4,900 - 6,000
3,500 - 4,900
2,000 - 3,500