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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Terrestrial Planets
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars

Low mass, high density
Jovian Planets
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

high mass, low density
natural satellites, more than 100 in the solar system
small, rocky metallic bodies that orbit the sun
small, rocky, icy bodies that orbit the sun
Asteroid Belt
Between Mars and Jupiter
Motion of Solar System Bodies
Counterclockwise in nearly the same place
Age of the sun
5 billion years
Age of Solar System
4.56 billion years
Solar Nebula Theory
proton sun and accretion disk
Condensation and Accretion
Small particles stick together to form larger particles
Particles from smallest to largest
Grain, Planetesimal, Planetary body
Planet buliding must begin before the sun is fully formed. Why?
Small particles are pushed outward easily by radiation and solar wind
Composition of Solar Nebula
3/4 hydrogen
1/4 helium
2% heavier elements
(1% Oxygen, .3% Carbon, .3% Neon)
Primary Planet building materials
3/4 ices
1/4 rocks and metals
Condensation Sequence
rocks and metals condense at 1500K, ices at 200K
Formation Timeline
Jupiter and Saturn Form, then sun, then terrestrial planets
Asteroid Belt Formation
Jupiters early formation perturbed nearby planetesimals. They collided and fragmented
Kuiper Belt
comet belt of icy and rocky planetesimals accreted beyond Neptune
Oort Cloud
icy, rocky planetesimals accreted in the Jovian Planet region
Captured planetesimals or form in mini accretion disks around planets
Extrasolar Planets
planets orbiting other stars
How do we detect them?
Indirectly by means of radial velocity
What can we see by the radial velocity curve?
Semi-major axis and minimum mass
What types of planets do we find the most of?
high mass close to stars "hot jupiters"
How did we find the composition of Earth?
evidence from seismic waves-s waves pass through liquids
sorting of materials by density inside a molten body
What is driving plate tectonics?
Convection cells in the mantle
Atmospheric Pressure at sea level
14.7 lb/in (1 ATM)
Composition of dry air
78% nitrogen
21% oxygen
1% argon
.03% Carbon dioxide
Evolution of Earth's Atmosphere
Atmosphere was once mostly CO2, and water vapor. Earth cooled and the water vapor condensed. CO2 dissolved in the water to form a carbonate which calcium reacted with to form limestone.
What causes Earth's magnetic field?
Convection cells in the outer core and rotation
What distorts our magnetic fields? What does this cause?
Solar wind; aurorae
Requirements for a strong magnetic field
Liquid conducting interior zone
Rapid rotation
the moon's age of bright, rough highlands
very old
dark, smooth lowlands
slightly old
bright rayed craters
Structure of moon
small iron core
rocky mantle
thick rocky crust that is thinner on the side that faces Earth
Moon Composition
low in ice, identical oxygen isotope ratios
Moons affect on the tides
bulge on the far sides of earth-2 high tides and 2 low tides
Sun affect on the tides
1/3 of the tide affect
Spring tides
most extreme, moon and sun work together since we're in a line, at the full and new moon
Neap tides
less extreme, moon and sun work against one another since they are at a 90 degree angle, at the first and third quarter moon
Earth carries tidal bulge ahead of the moon. What does this cause?
Day's increase by .002 seconds every 100 years
Earth transfers spin to the moon
Distance increases by 10 feet every 100 years
Eventually what will be the same when it comes to the Earth and Moon?
Earths rotational period and moons orbital period
Mercury surface features
old surface with lots of impact craters and polar ice caps
Structure and composition of mercury
high density center, low density exterior, large metallic core, thin crust and mantle
Surface features of Venus
always clouded, gently rolling plains, large shield volcanoes because of no plate tectonics
92 ATM 96% CO2, 4% N2
Mars Surface Features
polar ice caps (winter and summer), canyon, shield volcanoes, dry river beds
less than 0.01 ATM 95% CO2, 3% N2, dust storms
Phobos, Deimos-captured asteroids
Jupiters distinguishing features
banded appearance, great red spot
Structure of Jupiter
small rocky core, liquid ice layer, liquid metallic hydrogen layer
mostly hydrogen and helium
Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
Trends in moons
high density-low density
no craters-lots
rock and iron-rock and ice
Saturn distinguishing features
extensive ring system
roche limit prevents accretion of particles
Composition and Structure
small rocky core, liquid ice layer, thin layer of liquid metallic hydrogen
half rock, half ice moon, thick atmosphere
Roche limit
prevents accretion
tidal forces=grav. forces between particles
Uranus distinguishing features
perpendicular to ecliptic
Structure and composition
rocky core, salt water layer, liquid h2 and he layer
Moon with chaotic terrain-smashed and reassembled
Ring system
Neptune distinguishing features
great dark spot that vanished
Composition and structure
rocky core, salt water, liquid h2 and he layers
moon with retrograde motion and young surface
nitrogen geysers
Thin and clumpy
Pluto best observations
Hubble telescope
moon, rotates in 6.4 days, always faces the same way
KBO object or planet?